I believe these are germain questions. I think it might prove helpful to adopt some convention in a discussion to show when we are referring to the NCTM Standards, a state's or local district's Standards, or the generic idea of a standard. Perhaps using "N-Standard" for 'national Standard', "S-Standard" for 'state Standard', and "L-Standard" for 'local Standard'. "standard" without a lead capital indicates a generic 'standard'. For example, it wasn't clear to me in David's questions 2 and 4 which standards were being referenced.