"I wonder how they did the training, and how much, for people and (which) animals. "
Well most of the animals seemed to be pigeons. But I think a rat also featured.
Rich Ulric wrote:
" wonder how they did the training, and how much, for people and (which) animals.
"I wonder how indistinguishable it is, to be "nearly indistinguishable".
"A couple of years ago, I heard a National Public Radio report on the outcome of a big "paper-scissors-stone" competition. In Japan, I think, for thousands of dollars. The eventual winner apparently shocked and psyched his last opponent by playing "paper" as his final six moves.
"I don't know the tourney rules. "
I think there is a problem with knowing for sure whether any sequence of numbers is random. If one tries one can always find a rule that will fit.
I think diffeent experimenters used different measures. The later more sophisticated experimenters combined three or four different tests of randomness to come to their conclusion. For example, the pigeon training offered rewards to sequences of pecks that had to meet several criteria for randomness.
Oddly enough your example of rock paper scissors games was discussed in the Annual Review paper.
Rich Ulric wrote:
"I think I imagined that mosquitoes, at slow speeds (like, while near a target) suffered from worse aerodynamic instability than helicopters do, and had far worse sensor systems. - or maybe you are suggesting, That's what works for them.... "
1. The mosquito movement is my example, not the author's of the Annual review paper.
2. I think there are insects as small and light as mosquitos that don't move in such a random way - so I am not sure it is Brownian movement or aerodynamic instability. Mosquitos evolved from species of insects that were hunters like dragon flies (IIRC) - so it would be unlikely that they have defective flight.
3. Nevertheless perhaps the randomness is indeed through the selection of unstable filght mechanisms rather than random neuron firing. (The original paper in the Annual review spends much time showing that neurons can fire completely randomly.