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Topic: Vast Underfunding
Replies: 207   Last Post: Jul 27, 2007 10:13 AM

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Janet Rose

Posts: 1
Registered: 12/15/06
Re: MPG: Vast Underfunding
Posted: Dec 15, 2006 11:51 AM
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Haim, for someone who is offering advice about economics, here are a few
elementary pointers about the subject. First, profit-maximizing behavior
does not occur, for example, where government regulates prices or profits.
Universities are largely regulated and subsidized. Profit-seeking is
illegal. Therefore, universities cannnot attempt to maximize profits (or,
like other monopolists, equate marginal cost and marginal revenue). In
particular, universities are exempt from taxation under section 501(c)(3).
Therefore, should they spend any official time figuring out how to maximize
profits, they would be guilty of tax fraud if not racketeering.

Your claim that universities are like "shoe stores" likewise confuses price
and marginal revenue equation with government administration and a
political or administered model of economic behavior. Also, your argument
that universities are like shoe stores overlooks universities' heavy
government subsidies. Do shoe stores receive 1/3 and more of their revenue
from government? If universities are in fact profit-maximizing, then they
would have to explain to government why they are using the government
subsidies to maximize profits. Such an admission would go much further in
making Langbert's point, that universities have not been cost minimizing.

The behavioral model that you are using assumes freely functioning markets.
While the assumptions of "perfect competition" need not fully apply,
administered prices, such as tuition, are politically influenced. Does
social security or the DMV charge profit maximizing prices for social
security services and motor vehicle registration? You seem to think so, but
Langbert might argue otherwise.

There are additional confusions on your part, Haim. You claim that because
universities have antiquated accounting systems and do not know how much
their administrative costs are, they cannot complain about federal grants'
being insufficient to cover administrative costs. Yet such complaints
appear in the Chronicle of Higher Education.

As far as knowledge of cost accounting, a major overhaul of accounting
methodologies would NOT constitute an insurmountable challenge because
development of accounting standards that could be applied to universities
has ALREADY BEEN largely developed by the private sector. In other words,
private sector generally accepted accounting principles (GAAP) can be
applied to universities. For your information, I refer you to the work of
Robert Anthony, formerly of Harvard Business School, who has written
extensively about why private and public sector accounting should not be
different.

To cap off your education, Haim, I would suggest to you that I am Professor
Langbert's former student. I learned about monopolist behavior, cost
accounting, the assumptions of perfect competition, the political model of
managerial decision making (which is obviously relevant to this discussion
and about which you might learn) and Robert Anthony in only one of his
classes. Perhaps that is why he gets high student ratings. Perhaps you
can reduce your envy of Langbert's achievements a bit and stick to
mathematics, where hopefully you do a competent job.

<"Of course, it is the "double the rate of general inflation" that made me
think to post the article here, but the entire comment is very strange
coming from an economist. A university, like a shoe store, will charge
whatever the traffic will bear. I.e., universities charge more because they
can, and "improved university governance" has nothing to do with it."

Oops! The man is not an economist. Well then, it is a strange comment
coming from a man who should have talked to an economist or two. Later on,
he does sort of link tuition level with the pay of college presidents, but
the main point, I am sure, is that colleges will charge whatever they think
they can get, regardless.

In the fifth paragraph we read,

>Insiders know that administrative and facilities' costs
>are a large percentage of total higher education costs,
>though it is difficult to get universities to admit to
>how much.


The implication of Langbert's language is that the universities know "how
much" in detail. I seriously doubt this. I suspect Langbert does not fully
appreciate just how chaotic is cost accounting, and management in general,
in most large institutions, especially of the non-for-profit kind.

I am reminded of the first years of Rudy Giuliani's administration in
NYC. One of his first acts was to demand a budget from the then Board of
Education. He was denied. Ah, but he was not denied because they had it
and would not give it, he was denied because they did not have it. Imagine!
A $15 BBBillion institution without a budget! I would not run a Boy Scout
Troop without a budget.

While I am deeply sympathetic to Langbert's general thesis, and as much
as I would love to see his proposals implemented, in the end I think he does
not understand the enormity of time, effort, money, and agony it will cost
universities, and therefore the improbability that they will ever satisfy
his demand that

>...[universities] develop objective measures of student
>performance, student participation, and faculty
>research productivity that would be made public.


In other words, Langbert's call for reform of tertiary education sounds
to me just as improbable as is the general call for reform of public
education. I believe the answer in the one case is the same as in the
other: forget about fussing with the extant institutions, and start
constructing parallel, independent institutions.

Haim
Je me souviens

- - --------------------------------------
Gotham's College$
BY MITCHELL LANGBERT
December 6, 2006
URL: http://www.nysun.com/article/44658

The College Board recently reported that the cost of a four-year college
degree is up 35% from four years ago after adjusting for inflation. At
four-year private colleges, costs are currently $13,200 after financial aid
adjustments, and at public colleges they are $5,836. The College Board
estimates that from 1989 to 2005, college tuition inflation was almost
double the rate of general inflation, 5.94% versus 2.99%.The reason for the
ever-increasing costs is lax management. The solution is improved university
governance.

The adjacent table shows that, in the New York region, baseline tuition
ranges from $36,088 at Sarah Lawrence College to $4,157 at the City
University of New York. Baseline tuition at Columbia and New York University
is $35,166 and $33,420, respectively. University presidents' salaries
similarly vary. They range from Shirley Kenny's $287,000 at SUNY Stony Brook
to John Sexton's $789,989 at NYU. Note that, with a couple of exceptions,
presidents at the higher-priced institutions tend to earn more than
presidents at the lower-priced institutions.

Lax administration rather than faculty salaries explains high tuitions. An
increasing percentage of professors are adjuncts, parttime faculty members
paid on a per course basis. Adjuncts earn peanuts. CUNY's heavy reliance on
adjunct faculty explains its modest tuition. Most adjuncts earn under $5,000
per course, even when a large lecture course generates $180,000 or more in
revenue. In 2005, the Chronicle of Higher Education reported that while
nationally, colleges employed 60,000 more professors in 2003 than in 2001,
the increase for full-timers was only 2% whereas the increase for adjuncts
was 10%, resulting in a 50-50 ratio of full-timers to adjuncts. This trend
may be related to adjuncts generally not receiving health insurance as well
as to their low direct pay.

Moreover, average full-time faculty pay excluding health insurance has
approximately tracked inflation. In 2004, inflation was 1.9%, while
full-time faculty pay increased on average 2.1%. If the average associate
professor makes $90,000, including health and retirement benefits, while the
average adjunct makes $25,000, the average of the two is $57,500 including
benefits. The result of averaging the modest pay increases for full-time
faculty with the low salaries of adjuncts suggests that faculty salaries
cannot explain tuition increases. Indeed, executives in many other
industries would envy universities' ability to substitute part-timers for
fulltimers.

Insiders know that administrative and facilities' costs are a large
percentage of total higher education costs, though it is difficult to get
universities to admit to how much. Currently, the federal government caps
the percentage of administrative costs of university research grants ? for
which colleges have to delineate all expenses ? at 26% and allows an
unlimited amount for facilities. Yet, colleges argue that the cap is
restrictive and should be eliminated.

In the spring 2006 issue of the journal Academic Questions, I wrote an
article in which I correlated university expenses, student characteristics,
endowment growth, denominational affiliation of the university, geographic
region, ranking, and category of institution with university presidents'
pay. The strongest correlations are between presidents' pay and revenues and
between presidents' pay and expenses. In addition, revenues and expenses per
student have strong, slightly above .5, correlations with university
presidents' pay.

Economists like to think in terms of incentives. What are the incentives
that university presidents face with respect to tuition? They are that
higher budgets and higher costs per student are, at least on the surface,
associated with higher presidential pay. Thus, college presidents not only
have no incentive to contain tuition costs, they also may have incentives to
see that tuition increases, especially if tuition is linked to increases in
overall revenue and expenditure.

Some economists have argued that budget size ought to be associated with
university executive pay levels because decisions of executives of large
universities have larger effects than decisions of executives of small
universities. However, this claim is debatable because executives of larger
universities have larger staffs to whom they can delegate difficult
decisions, have larger budgets for consultants to provide them with advice,
and find it easier to obtain funding from public and private sources.
Presidents' pay should not be increased because they spend more.

One way to resolve the debate is to see whether factors that are unarguably
related to institutional performance, such as the entering students' SAT
scores, the school's tier, and the percentage of classes with fewer than 20
students, have a larger effect than factors that are unarguably unrelated to
institutional performance, such as enrollment, religious affiliation, and
the kind of college, such as liberal arts, university, and so forth. It
turns out that enrollment, expenses, religious affiliation, and kind of
institution explain most of the variability in college presidents' pay,
while performance-related factors such as SAT scores explain almost none.

Universities have expended almost no effort to create incentives that might
encourage university presidents to cut costs and constrain tuition.
Moreover, it is difficult for outsiders to assess management even in the
best of circumstances, yet colleges continue to use not-for-profit financial
disclosure methods that are designed to leave outsiders in the dark about
what university managers are doing.

Thus, those who are concerned about rising college tuition should look to
reform the management of universities. In that regard, two steps would be
effective. First, parents, students, and government should insist that
universities issue financial statements that include information that is
specifically relevant to colleges, such as facilities, operations, and
instructional costs per student. Second, they should insist that university
trustees begin to grapple with the design of appropriate incentives that
will motivate university presidents to constrain rather than to expand
costs.

A number of approaches are available. For example, university presidents
could be paid bonuses when tuition is reduced. They could also be rewarded
for improvements in faculty research productivity, students' participation
in extracurricular activities, and improvement in performance on achievement
tests. Trustees who have the skills and motivation to monitor presidents
could be hired, and such trustees could develop strategic plans, linking
presidents' pay increases to achievement of specific objectives. Trustees
could also increase their interaction with faculty and administration to
learn about cost-saving ideas. They could base merit pay for faculty and
administration on cost reduction and increased student performance.

To implement such management policies, universities would need to develop
objective measures of student performance, student participation, and
faculty research productivity that would be made public. The sunlight of
public disclosure would likely prove effective in limiting tuition hikes.

Mr. Langbert is an associate professor of business management and finance at
Brooklyn College and may be visited at democracy-project.com.

- ------- End of Forwarded Message




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Date Subject Author
7/27/07
Read Vast Underfunding
Haim
6/13/06
Read Re: MPG: Vast Underfunding
Haim
6/13/06
Read Re: MPG: Vast Underfunding
Kirby Urner
6/13/06
Read Re: MPG: Vast Underfunding
Haim
6/13/06
Read Re: MPG: Vast Underfunding
Kirby Urner
6/13/06
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Haim
6/14/06
Read Re: MPG: Vast Underfunding
Kirby Urner
6/21/06
Read Re: MPG: Vast Underfunding
Haim
6/21/06
Read Re: MPG: Vast Underfunding
Michael Paul Goldenberg
6/21/06
Read Re: MPG: Vast Underfunding
Haim
6/21/06
Read Re: MPG: Vast Underfunding
Michael Paul Goldenberg
6/21/06
Read Re: MPG: Vast Underfunding
Haim
6/23/06
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Richard Strausz
6/23/06
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Michael Paul Goldenberg
6/23/06
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Wayne Bishop
6/23/06
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Michael Paul Goldenberg
6/23/06
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Haim
6/22/06
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Kirby Urner
6/22/06
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Haim
6/22/06
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Richard Strausz
6/22/06
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Kirby Urner
6/22/06
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Haim
6/23/06
Read Re: MPG: Vast Underfunding
Kirby Urner
6/22/06
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Kirby Urner
6/22/06
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Haim
6/23/06
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Louis Talman
6/23/06
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Kirby Urner
6/29/06
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Haim
6/29/06
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Wayne Bishop
6/29/06
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Kirby Urner
6/29/06
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Kirby Urner
7/17/06
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Haim
10/1/06
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Haim
10/1/06
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10/1/06
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Haim
10/6/06
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Haim
10/6/06
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Richard Strausz
10/6/06
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Michael Paul Goldenberg
10/6/06
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Haim
10/6/06
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10/6/06
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Haim
10/6/06
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Richard Strausz
10/6/06
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10/6/06
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10/6/06
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10/6/06
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10/30/06
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Haim
11/15/06
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Haim
11/15/06
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Haim
11/15/06
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11/16/06
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Haim
11/16/06
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Richard Strausz
11/16/06
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Haim
11/16/06
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Haim
11/17/06
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11/17/06
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11/17/06
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11/17/06
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1/3/07
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1/3/07
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Richard Strausz
11/23/06
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Haim
11/23/06
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Michael Paul Goldenberg
11/24/06
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Haim
11/24/06
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Michael Paul Goldenberg
11/25/06
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Haim
11/25/06
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Michael Paul Goldenberg
11/25/06
Read Re: MPG: Vast Underfunding
Haim
12/6/06
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Haim
12/15/06
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Janet Rose
12/17/06
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Haim
12/18/06
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Haim
12/18/06
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Richard Strausz
12/18/06
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Michael Paul Goldenberg
12/19/06
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Haim
12/19/06
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Richard Strausz
12/25/06
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Haim
12/26/06
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Richard Strausz
12/27/06
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Richard Strausz
12/27/06
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Greg Matheson
12/28/06
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Michael Paul Goldenberg
12/28/06
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Haim
2/2/07
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2/2/07
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2/3/07
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2/3/07
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2/3/07
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2/3/07
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2/3/07
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2/4/07
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2/4/07
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2/4/07
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2/4/07
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2/4/07
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2/4/07
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2/4/07
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2/9/07
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2/10/07
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2/11/07
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2/11/07
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2/11/07
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2/11/07
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2/12/07
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2/12/07
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2/12/07
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2/12/07
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2/12/07
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2/13/07
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2/12/07
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2/12/07
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2/12/07
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2/13/07
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2/13/07
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3/7/07
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3/9/07
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3/9/07
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3/9/07
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3/9/07
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3/9/07
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3/9/07
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3/9/07
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3/14/07
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3/14/07
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3/14/07
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3/14/07
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3/14/07
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3/15/07
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3/15/07
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3/16/07
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3/16/07
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3/16/07
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3/16/07
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3/16/07
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3/16/07
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3/16/07
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3/16/07
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4/24/07
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4/24/07
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4/24/07
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4/24/07
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4/24/07
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4/24/07
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4/24/07
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4/25/07
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4/24/07
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5/5/07
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5/6/07
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Michael Paul Goldenberg
5/7/07
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5/7/07
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Michael Paul Goldenberg
5/6/07
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Haim
5/6/07
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Michael Paul Goldenberg
5/7/07
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Louis Talman
5/7/07
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Haim
5/7/07
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Louis Talman
5/7/07
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Haim
5/7/07
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Michael Paul Goldenberg
5/7/07
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5/7/07
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Richard Strausz
5/7/07
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5/7/07
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Michael Paul Goldenberg
5/7/07
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Michael Paul Goldenberg
5/7/07
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Louis Talman
5/9/07
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Haim
5/9/07
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Michael Paul Goldenberg
5/9/07
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Sedinger, Harry
5/9/07
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Bishop, Wayne
5/9/07
Read Re: MPG: Vast Underfunding
Haim
6/16/07
Read Re: MPG: Vast Underfunding
Haim
7/6/07
Read Re: MPG: Vast Underfunding
Haim
7/6/07
Read Re: MPG: Vast Underfunding
Victor Steinbok
7/7/07
Read Re: MPG: Vast Underfunding
Kirby Urner
7/7/07
Read Re: MPG: Vast Underfunding
Haim
7/7/07
Read Re: MPG: Vast Underfunding
Kirby Urner
7/7/07
Read Re: MPG: Vast Underfunding
Haim
7/27/07
Read Re: Vast Underfunding
Bishop, Wayne
7/26/07
Read Re: MPG: Vast Underfunding
Richard Strausz
7/26/07
Read Re: MPG: Vast Underfunding
Haim
7/6/07
Read Re: MPG: Vast Underfunding
Haim
7/11/07
Read Re: MPG: Vast Underfunding
Michael Paul Goldenberg

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