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Topic: Moving Dimensions Theory's simplicity: The fourth dimension is
expanding relative to the three spatial dimension: dx4/dt =ic

Replies: 14   Last Post: May 16, 2008 3:55 PM

 Messages: [ Previous | Next ]
 hedgefundphysics@gmail.com Posts: 2 Registered: 4/22/08
Re: Moving Dimensions Theory's simplicity: The fourth dimension is
expanding relative to the three spatial dimension: dx4/dt =ic

Posted: Apr 29, 2008 6:34 PM

Moving Dimensions Theory
by The Professor in Black

ABSTRACT
Moving Dimensions Theory postulates that the fourth dimension is
expanding relative to the three spatial dimensions:

MDT provides a physical model underlying both quantum mechanics and
relativity, as well as statistical mechanics, entropy, the universe?s
expansion, and time?s arrows. MDT?s simple postulate and equation
account for quantum mechanics? action-at-a-distance and relativity?s
length contraction, as well as entanglement and the equivalence of
mass and energy. MDT provides a simple physical model showing that
diverse dualities?wave/particle, time/space, and mass/energy?all
originate from the same principle. MDT provides a physical model
underlying entropy and unifying time?s thermodynamic, classical,
quantum, and radiative arrows. The theory accounts for the
gravitational redshift and the gravitational slowing of clocks, while
showing why there is no need to quantize gravity as no physical
entities are transferred in gravitational alterations of energy. MDT
presents a simple model accounting for the constant velocity of light,
the fact that the maximum velocity through space is c, and the fact
that c is independent of the velocity of the source, as MDT considers
photons as matter surfing the fourth expanding dimension. Nonlocality
is accounted for by an expanding fourth dimension that is inherently
nonlocal via its continual expansion, and MDT shows that this
fundamental expansion is the origin of quantum mechanic?s
probabilistic and nonlocal features. MDT provides a physical model
for time?time is not the fourth dimension, but rather a phenomenon
that emerges from a physical reality wherein the fourth dimension is
expanding relative to the three spatial dimensions. Indeed, Einstein
never said that time is the fourth dimension, but rather he and
Minkowski stated x4 = ict. The theory resolves the EPR paradox while
also liberating us from the block universe implied by Einstein?s
relativity, and characterized by Godel. Relativity freezes the
expansion of the fourth dimension, only ever considering instantaneous
snapshots of the universe. Quantum Mechanics treats the fourth
dimension as a dynamical element, and hence quantum mechanics is a
science defined by flux?by differential operators. Nonlocality and
the relativity of simultaneity derive from the fundamental expansion
of the fourth dimension, which distributes a local point into a
nonlocal probability distribution at the rate of c. Hence a photon?s
motion is described by a spherically-symmetric probabilistic wavefront
expanding at c; as a photon is but matter that exists entirely in the
fourth expanding dimension. An act of measurement removes the photon
from expanding fourth dimension, localizing it.
Again and again throughout nature we see MDT?s fundamental action?
local points becoming nonlocal spherically-symmetric wavefronts of
probability, wherein every point on the surface, while distributed
evenly throughout the three spatial dimensions, are yet at the same
singular point in the fourth expanding dimension.
dx4/dt = ic.

MOVING DIMENSIONS THEORY

Moving Dimensions Theory Introduction: 7
MDT?s Fundamental Clues 9
MDT is in Complete Agreement with Quantum Mechanics and Relativity 13
3. The Derivation of Einstein?s Relativity from Moving Dimensions
Theory 15
Photons Remain Stationary in The Fourth Expanding Dimension 21
The Block Universe, Free Will, & MDT 23
Einstein?s Credo 23
On the Advancement of Physics by the Rugged Individual 25
3. Time as an Emergent Phenomenon 27
Simple Proofs of MDT 31
Nonlocality and Relativity United by MDT?s Physical Model 33
On The Photon?s Null Vector 35
MDT Underlies Huygen?s Principle & Feynman?s Many Paths 37
Various proofs of MDT & Einstein on the Nature of Physical Theory: 41
MDT & the Unity of The Dualities 45
Time?s Arrows Unified 49
A Physical Model for Entropy 55
Godel?s Block Universe Paradox Resolved! 57
Unification of QM and Relativity 59
Einstein?s Annus Mirabilis & MDT: The Photon Holds The Key to QM &
Relativity, & Time?s Arrows 61
MDT: The Best-Tested Theory of All Time 65
MDT PERVADES NATURE: MDT DIAGRAMS AND FIGURES 72
Number of dimensions 80
Time?s Arrows 82
Are String Theory and LQG Even Asking Good Questions? 83
Blaming String Theory on Einstein 85
Moving Dimensions Theory & Huygens? Principle 87
MDT & Brian Greene?s Elegant Universe 89
MDT Original Paper: 93
Unification of QM and Relativity 95
A Dialogue with Lee Smolin / Moving Dimensions Theory 99
MDT is Enlightening Roger Penrose 105
ARE NEW IDEAS IMPORTANT IN PHYSICS? 111
Einsetein?s 1912 Manuscript on Relativity & MDT 135
Why Gravity is not Quantized and Electromagetism Is 139
MDT Calls Out String Theory?s Bold Fraud & Massive Groupthink
Boondoggle 141
MOVING DIMENSIONS THEORY & THE GRAVITATIONAL REDSHIFT 149
MDT, Clocks, Light, and TIME 150
WHY GRAVITY IS NOT QUANTIZED, WHILE E&M IS, PART II 153

Moving Dimensions Theory Introduction:
Moving Dimensions Theory postulates that the fourth dimension is
expanding relative to the three spatial dimensions:

A local point in the fourth dimension expands at the rate of c,
defining a spherically-symmetrically expanding wavefront in three
dimensions, while yet retaining absolute locality as a single point in
the fourth dimension. This explains both why photons never age
(relativity), and why two initially interacting photons can yet be
entangled, no matter how far they travel apart in three dimensions.
MDT provides a physical model underlying both quantum mechanics and
relativity, as well as statistical mechanics, entropy, the universe?s
expansion, and time?s arrows. The simple postulate accounts for
quantum mechanics? action-at-a-distance and relativity?s length
contraction, as well as entanglement and the equivalence of mass and
energy. MDT provides a simple physical model showing that diverse
dualities?wave/particle, time/space, and mass/energy?all originate
from the same principle. MDT provides a physical model underlying
entropy and unifying time?s thermodynamic, classical, quantum, and
radiative arrows; while accounting for the gravitational redshift and
the gravitational slowing of clocks. MDT presents a simple model
accounting for the constant velocity of light, the fact that the
maximum velocity through space is c, and the fact that c is
independent of the velocity of the source, as MDT considers photons as
matter surfing the fourth expanding dimension. Nonlocality is
accounted for by an expanding fourth dimension that is inherently
nonlocal via its continual expansion, and MDT shows that this
fundamental expansion is the origin of quantum mechanic?s
probabilistic and nonlocal features. MDT provides a physical model
for time?time is not the fourth dimension, but rather a phenomenon
that emerges from a physical reality wherein the fourth dimension is
expanding relative to the three spatial dimensions. The theory
resolves the EPR paradox while also liberating us from the block
universe implied by Einstein?s relativity, and characterized by Godel;
and it provides a physical model accounting for entanglement, which
has benn verified in physical experiment, while showing that the block
universe isn?t real?which it of course it isn?t, as a) we have free
will and b) we have never been visited by people from the future.
Relativity freezes the expansion of the fourth dimension, only ever
considering instantaneous snapshots of the universe. Quantum
Mechanics treats the fourth dimension as a dynamical element, and
hence quantum mechanics is a science defined by flux?by differential
operators. MDT shows that gravitational and inertial mass are one and
the same, and it also unifies gravity and quantum mechanics with a
simple model, while showing that there is no need to quantize gravity,
as never are any physical quanta of mass nor energy physically
transmitted in gravitational alterations of energy. MDT naturally
accounts for the gravitational redshift and the acceleration of
objects in a gravitational field.

MDT?s Fundamental Clues
Einstein stated that curiosity is more important than knowledge, but
all too often modern physicists forget to ask fundamental questions.
Below is a list of question that neither LQG nor string theory, nor
any other ?professional? research programs, ask. Indeed, as subprime
bureaucracies have grown and politics has replaced physics, asking
questions has been deemed impolite. But we press on, regardless!
questions:

1. Why is light?s velocity a constant c?
2. Why is light?s velocity c independent of its source?
3. Why is it that nothing can travel faster than c.
4. Why does a photon, which travels at c, not age, while defining
simultaneity.
5. Why are energy and mass are equivalent. E=mc^2
6. Why are all of time?s arrows point in the same direction?towards
dissipation and entropy.
7. Why do so many physicists say time is the fourth dimension, when
Einstein never said the fourth dimension x4 is time. He said x4 =
ict.
8. Why can matter can appear as energy or mass?
9. Why is it that when matter appears as energy, it propagates at c
through space.
10. Why does all matter have particle?local?and wave?nonlocal?
properties.
11. Why does all energy have particle?local?and wave?nonlocal?
properties.
12. Why is it that when matter appears as stationary mass, it
propagates at c through the fourth dimension.
13. Why is it that when matter appears as energy, it propagates at c
through the fourth dimension.
14. Why is it that to move at c through space is to stand still in the
fourth dimension.
15. Why is it that to move at c through the fourth dimension is to
stand still in space.
16. Why is it that all objects move at but one speed through spacetime?
c.
17. Why is the universe is expanding.
18. Why does Radiation expand outwards, not inwards.
19. Why is it that Entropy imitates the general motion of all
radiation and the universe?s expansion?a spherically-symmetric
expanding wave.
20. Why is it that Huygen?s Principle, which underlies all reality
ranging from QED to Feynman?s many-paths, to classical physics, states
that every point of a spherically-expanding wavefront is in turn a
spherically-expanding wavefront.
21. Why are all photons described by a spherically expanding wavefront
propagating at c.
22. Why is it that two initially-interacting photons remain entangled,
no matter how far they travel.
23. Why is it that two initially-interacting photons remain the exact
same age as when they began, no matter how far they travel.
24. Why is it that young?s double-slit experiments show that mass and
energy have nonlocal wave properties.
25. Why is it that the collapse of the wave function is immediate in
the photoelectric effect.
26. Why is there is no way for an object to gain velocity without
being reduced in length via relativistic length contraction.
27. Why does a photon traces out a null vector through spacetime.
28. Why does time?s arrow points in a definitive direction.
29. Why does entropy increase?
30. Why do Moving clocks run slow.
31. Why does time travel into the past is impossible.
32. Why does free will exists.
33. Why is it that time is not frozen?the block universe does not
exist.
34. Why does the velocity of probability is c, as a photon?s
probabilistic wavefront travels at c.
45. Why is the velocity of quantum entanglement is c.
36. Why is it that in Schroedinger?s equation, the first derivative
with respect to the fourth dimension is proportional two the second
derivative with the respect to the three spatial dimensions. Any
change in position in the fourth expanding dimension is an
acceleration in the three spatial dimensions.
37. Why is it that a photon emitted from the sun is redshifted as it
travels away. Its wavelength appears longer as it is measured against
space that is less-streched. A photon inherits the local geometry of
the spacetime where it was emitted.
38. Why do clocks in gravitational fields run slow?
39. Why are photons redshifted as they move away from massive objects,
and blueshifted as they move towards them?

Firstoff, imagine a universe where one was allowed to ask such
questions; instead of having to engage in groupthink mathematics and
snarky politics for tenure; while bringing the advancement of
theoretical physics to a halt for the last thirty years or so. And
then imagine if there was one simple principle underlying and unifying
all these questions and clues with a fundamental physical model. That
would be MDT: The fourth dimension is expanding relative to the three
spatial dimensions.
dx4/dt = ic

The fourth dimension expands at the rate of c.
The fourth dimension has local and nonlocal properties.
Entropy results as the local becomes nonlocal?as a point of the fourth
expanding dimension expands in a spherically-symmetric manner,
dragging all of entirety along with it.
Quantum Mechanics? nonlocality and entropy are inextricably linked, as
the fourth dimension expands at c, and carries photons and particles
apart.
Photons surf the fourth expanding dimension.
Energy is but matter trapped on the fourth expanding dimension. Hence
E=mc^2.
All matter has vast potential for energy, if only it is rotated into
the fourth expanding dimension.
General Relativity freezes the fourth dimension, whereas quantum
mechanics is built upon its flux?hence the differential operators.
Entropy and Huygen?s principle rest upon the fourth expanding
dimension, as do all photons which surf its expanding wavefront.
Nonlocality arises because the fourth dimension is nonlocal as it
expands.
Simultaneity is relative because our measurement of time is relative
to our propagation with respect to the fourth expanding dimension.
Time, as measured in our watches and perceived in the stored order of
our memories, is not the fourth dimension, but a phenomenon that
emerges because a fourth dimension is expanding relative to the three
spatial dimensions.
The block universe does not exist, as the past is but a memory of a
state that is long since gone.
Wave interference arises because of probability interference, and
probability is defined by the expansion of the fourth dimension, which
distributes the locality of a dimensions upon an spherically-symmetric
wavefront, where all points yet are one point in that dimension; until
the wave is measured, and the particle is localized in the three
spatial dimensions.
All motion requires that an object have a component in the source of
all motion?the fourth expanding dimension. Hence all moving objects
are foreshortened.

The universe?s fundamental invariant is this: the fourth dimension is
expanding at the rate of c relative to the three spatial dimensions.
This expansion manifests itself as a spherically-symmetric expanding
wavefront with a wavelength of Planck?s length.

Consider a clock represented by two mirrors separated by one meter. A
photon bounces back and fourth between the mirrors. A photon travels
at 3.0 x 108 m/s, so each time a photon hits a mirror, .333 x 10-8 s
have elapsed.

Suppose we want to measure the velocity of light with this clock. We
set up an experimental apparatus as pictured below, with a photon
source and a photon detector separated by one meter.

Judging by our clock, we find that the time taken for the photon to
travel one meter, from the source to the detector, is .333 x 10-8 s.
Now, let us place our apparatus at two different regions, A and B,
where x represents one meter.

In both regions A & B, judging by the clock in each region, we find
that the time taken for the photon to travel one meter, from the
source to the detector, is .333 x 10-8 s in both regions. In both
regions A & B, the velocity of light is c. In both regions A & B,
the distance x is one meter. But there is a fundamental difference in
regions A & B, that arises because of the universe?s fundamental
invariant?the fourth dimension is expanding relative to the three
spatial dimensions. Even though space is curved in regions A and B by
the massive object M, the rate of the expansion of the fourth
dimension through both regions in constant?dx4/dt=ic. And so it is
that a clock will run slower in region A than in region B.

Now let us superimpose the universe?s invariant?the fourth expanding
dimension?over the regions A & B which represent space curved by the
mass M. Recall that the fourth expanding dimension carries all
photons. Thus the clock in region A, discussed in the above
experiment, will tick about 4 times every time the clock in region B
ticks once. This is because the fourth expanding dimension has to
travel four fundamental wavelengths in region A, while only a single
one in region B. Thus, if the two clocks from A and B are reunited,
all observers will agree that clock A registered less time, and thus
that stronger gravitational fields slow time. Both A and B represent
lengths of one meter, and the mass M stretches the space in region A.
Note also that a wave with a certain frequency in A?one that
oscillates four times as it traverses the distance, will only
oscillate once while traversing the distance in B. Both distance are
one meter, and thus the frequency of the wave is higher in A and lower
in B, while the wavelength is lower in A and longer in B, just as the
gravitational redshift supposes.
This simple thought experiment brings to light several remarkable
features of MDT. MDT explains why clocks run slower in stronger
gravitational fields where space is stretched. It shows that time, as
measured on a clock, is also stretched. But even though time and
space are stretched, the expansion of the fourth dimension remains a
constant: dx4/dt = ic.
So it is that the invariance of the expanding fourth dimension, when
superimposed on space stretched by a mass, results in clocks ticking
more slowly in stronger gravitational fields.

By now it should be seen that the velocity of light is always measured
to be constant because the velocity of light is always measured
relative to a clock whose timekeeping is based on distance and the
propagation of light. It is the actual expansion of the fourth
dimension relative to the three spatial dimensions that is the true
invariant; and generally, for all intents and purposes, this can be
seen as the velocity of light, as photons surf the fourth expanding
dimension. However, MDT is novel in that it shows time?s curvature?
the slower ticking of a clock in a stronger gravitation field, arises
from the invariance of the expansion of the fourth dimension
superimposed over the three stationary spatial dimensions.
Thus GR also supports MDT?s fundamental postulate and equation:
dx4/dt = ic

Furthermore, also note that Planck?s length never changes. While
space is curved in regions A & B, Planck?s length lh remains the exact
same. Planck?s length is defined by the fundamental motion of the
universe?the fourth dimension is expanding relative to the three
spatial dimensions in units of the Planck length at the rate of c.
Planck?s length and the rate of c may change over large periods of
time, which could account for dark matter and an accelerating
universe.

WHY GRAVITY IS NOT QUANTIZED, WHILE E&M IS, PART II

Gravity is not quantized as there is nothing to quantize. In the
above thought experiments, a photon traveling from the massive star on
out experienced a gravitational redshift?it lost energy. In losing
energy, no energy was emitted in the form of photons nor mass nor
matter nor any other form. The photon lost energy because it surfs
the expanding fourth dimension, preserving its original length in the
fourth dimension where it was emitted, while entering space that is
not quite as stretched?hence its wavelength becomes longer. But this
loss of energy was accompanied by no physical emissions of photons nor
matter. Hence gravity does not rely on the emission and propagation
of physical entities to transmit forces.
Likewise, a photon heading towards a star would appear blue-shifted.
No physical matter nor photons would be added, but rather the
underlying curvature of space would result in the photon gaining
energy.
So it is that in altering the energy of objects, gravity neither adds
nor extracts physical entities including matter or photons.
But in order to accelerate an electron via an electromagnetic wave, we
charge in order to accelerate it; and too, a decelerating electron
emits photons as it slows down.
So it is that forces in electricity and magnetism require the exchange
of physical entities, whereas gravitational forces arise entirely
because of the invariant expansion of the fourth dimensions
superimposed over the curvature of spacetime. Photons surf the fourth
expanding dimension, and thus, like the fourth expanding dimension,
they are quantized proportional to the Planck length. The fourth
dimension continually takes a local point and distributes it
nonlocally; and so it is that physical entities such as photons and
electrons have nonlocal properties (wavelike), as well as local
properties (particulate).
But the gravitational field does not need particles to transmit energy
to photons nor any other entity, as we have seen. Gravitational
forces rely entirely on the curvature of space relative to the
invariance of the fourth expanding dimension. Because gravity does
not need particulate nor physical entities to transmit energy, there
is nothing to quantize.
So it is that MDT explains both gravitational forces and QED; while
showing that they both derive from a deeper physical reality that does
not require the quantization of gravity.

On Apr 24, 8:16 pm, opensourcea...@gmail.com wrote:
> Why Gravity is not Quantized and Electromagetism Is
>
> ---------------------------------------------------------------------------­-----
>
> Gravity freezes the fourth expanding dimension in a snapshot. Hence
> general relativity is not based on differential operators and wave
> functions.
>
> QM acknowledges the flux of the expanding fourth dimension. Hence QM
> is based on differential operators and wave functions.
>
> Gravity does not rely on the nonlocal expansion of the fourth
> dimension. Gravity relies on the immediate curvature of the local
> spacetime.
>
> QM recognizes that a photon's locality is perpetually smeared into
> nonlocality by the fourth expanding dimension. Hence every particle
> has its wave, as every particle's local component in the fourth
> expanding dimensions is smeared and distributed in a nonlocal manner
> by the fourth expanding dimension.
>
> MDT states that the fourth dimension is expanding relative to the
> three spatial dimensions. dx4/dt = ic
>
> Every point of locality in the fourth dimension is coninually becoming
> a nonlocal distribution. Hence a photon propagates not as a particle,
> but as a spereically-symmetric wavefront representing the probability
> of its position. All points on that sphere are yet at the same point
> in the fourth expanding dimension. Hence a phton does not move in the
> fourth dimension; and thus a photon is ageless.
>
> Every point of locality in the fourth dimension is coninually becoming
> a nonlocal distribution. Hence a photon propagates not as a particle,
> but as a spereically-symmetric wavefront representing the probability
> of its position. A photon transmits force because it carries energy
> with it.
>
> Gravity does not rely on the nonlocal expansion of the fourth
> dimension. Gravity relies on the immediate curvature of the local
> spacetime. Now if the mass changes, the curvature of the spacetime can
> change, but this change of curvatuve requires no particle.
>
> Nonlocality and probability walk hand-in-hand. The collapse of a wave
> function is instantaneous; and while the particle is local, the
> probabilistic wave function is nonlocal--it distributes the locality
> of the particle throughout space.
>
> This is because the expansion of the fourth dimension distributes the
> locality of the fourth dimension throughout space.
>
> Nothing travels as fast as a photon. Nothing travels as fast as a
> photon's nonlocality. A photon exists purely in the fourth expanding
> dimension, and the expanding fourth dimension distributes the photon's
> probability throughout space at the rate of c, as dx4/dt = ic.
>
> Every particle has a wave, because every particle's locality is
> continually smeared and distributed by the fourth expanding dimension.
> Hence we can never reach absolute zero; hence entropy; hence quantum
> mechanics' nonlocality.
>
> But in gravity, there is no particle.
>
> Gravity is merely the warping of the dimensions, which tells matter
> how to move.
>
> All matter maintains a constant projection in the three spatial
> dimensions and the fourth dimension, unless acted upon by an exterior
> force--the law of inertia.
>
> The greater the component in the fourth moving dimension, the faster
> it moves, and the shorter it appears in the three spatial dimensions--
> hence relativistic length contraction for all motion.
>
> All matter travels in a straight line through space-time; unless acted
> upon by an exterior force, whereupon the components of an object in
> the fourth expanding dimension changes.
>
> All motion in the universe derives from the fourth expanding
> dimension.
> On Apr 24, 3:27 pm, 45herosjour...@gmail.com wrote:
>
>
>

> > MDT underlies the fundamental propagation of a photon.
>
> > A photon is ageless because it stays in the exact same place in the
> > fourth expanding.
> > A photon's probability distibution expands at the rate of c in
> > spherically symmetric manner because the fourth dimension expands at
> > the rate of c in a spherically symmetric manner.
> > A photon has no rest mass because none of it is at rest in the three
> > stationary spatial dimensions--all a photon's mass exists entriely in
> > the fourth dimension.

>
> > MDT underlies the fundamental postulate of quantum electrodynamics ?-
> > that wavefunctions of every object propagate over any and all allowed
> > (unobstructed) paths from the source to the given point. All paths
> > have a probaility of being followed because of the fundamental nature
> > of a fourth dimension that is expanding relative to the three spatial
> > dimensions. The probability distribution of the photon expands at the
> > rate of c. After a photon is emitted, the spherical wavefront that
> > defines its probability for being found at any point has a radius of
> > 186,000 miles. This is the net result of billions and billions of
> > quantum expansions of the fourth dimension, and during each expansion,
> > the photon had an equal chance of being found anywhere on the surface
> > of the net sphere, which is the sum total of billions upon billions of
> > smaller spheres.

>
> > These diagrams illustrate the basis of Huygen's Principle:http://www-laep.ced.berkeley.edu/~i...site/index.html
>
> > MDT describes the fundamental motion of the unvierse.
>
> > From the simple postulate: "The fourth dimension is expanding relative
> > to the three spatial dimensions," captured in the simple equation
> > d(x4)/dt=ic, the following emerges:

>
> > Huygen'sPrinciple
> > The fundamental postulate of quantum electrodynamics ? that
> > wavefunctions of every object propagate over any and all allowed
> > (unobstructed) paths from the source to the given point.
> > Time
> > Entropy
> > Action at a Distance
> > Double slit interference
> > Relativity
> > Length Contraction
> > Time Dilation
> > The equivalence of mass and energy: E=mc^2: Energy is but matter
> > caught upon the fourth expanding dimension.
> > Time's Thermodynamic Arrow

>
> > And finally, the goal of physics is ultimately to describe physical
> > reality. We live in a universe whose physical reality is that the
> > fourth dimension is expanding relative to the three spatial
> > dimensions.

>
> > MDT & Brian Greene?s Elegant Universe
>
> > In An Elegant Universe, Brian Greene almost characterizesMoving> Dimensions Theory?s deeper reality, but falls just short.
>
> > ?Einstein found that precisely this idea?the sharing of motion between
> > different dimensions?underlies all of the remarkable physics of
> > special relativity, so long as we realize that not only can spatial
> > dimensions share an object?s motion, but the time dimension can share
> > this motion as well. In fact, in the majority of circumstances, most
> > of an object?s motion is through time, not space. Let?s see what this
> > means.? Space, Time, and the Eye of the Beholder, An Elegant Universe,
> > Brian Greene, p. 49

>
> > Right here Brian almost grasps MDT. But time is not a dimension. Time
> > is an emergent phenomena that arises because the fourth dimension is
> > expanding relative to the three spatial dimensions at the rate of c.
> > Let?s rewrite Brian?s paragraph as it should be written:

>
> > ?Einstein found that precisely this idea?the sharing of motion between
> > different dimensions?underlies all of the remarkable physics of
> > special relativity, so long as we realize that not only can spatial
> > dimensions share an object?s motion, but the time dimension can share
> > this motion as well. In fact, in the majority of circumstances, most
> > of an object?s motion is through the fourth dimension, not the three
> > spatial dimensions. Let?s see what this means.? Space, Time, and the
> > Eye of the Beholder, An Elegant Universe, Brian Greene, p. 49

>
> > Most objects are traveling far less than c through the three spatial
> > dimensions. Thus most objects are traveling close to the rate of c
> > through the fourth dimension. To be stationary in the three spatial
> > dimensions implies a velocity of c through the fourth dimension. Ergo
> > the fourth dimension is expanding relative to the three spatial
> > dimensions. To be stationary in the fourth dimensions, as is a photon,
> > implies a velocity of c through the three spatial dimensions. Ergo the
> > fourth dimension is expanding relative to the three spatial
> > dimensions. dx(4)/dt = ic
> > Brian Greene continues:

>
> > ?Motion through space is a concept we learn about early in life.
> > Although we often don?t think of things in such terms, we also learn
> > that we, our friends, our belongings, and so forth all move through
> > time, as well. When we look at a clock or a wristwatch, even while we
> > idly sit and watch TV, the reading on the watch is constantly
> > changing, constantly ?moving forward in time.? We and everything
> > around us are aging, inevitably passing from one moment of time to the
> > next. In fact, the mathematician Hermann Minkowski, and ultimately
> > Einstein as well, advocated thinking about time as another dimension
> > of the universe?the fourth dimension?in some ways quite similar to the
> > three spatial dimensions in which we find ourselves immersed.? Space,
> > Time, and the Eye of the Beholder, An Elegant Universe, Brian Greene,
> > p. 49

>
> > What Greene misses is that the time measured on your watch?the ticking
> > seconds?is not the fourth dimension, but it is a phenomenon that
> > emerges because the fourth dimension is expanding relative to the
> > three spatial dimensions. The time measured on a clock or watch relies
> > on the emission and propagation of photons, be it in the context of an
> > unwinding clock spring or an oscillating quartz crystal, or even the
> > beating of a heart. And photons are matter that surf the fourth
> > expanding dimension. As time is so inextricably wed to the emission
> > and propagation of photons, and as photons are matter caught in the
> > fourth expanding dimension, our notion of ?time? inherits properties
> > of the fourth expanding dimension. But the fact is that time emerges
> > from a deeper physical reality?a fourth dimension that is expanding
> > relative to the three spatial dimensions.
> > Brian Green continues on, heading off in the wrong direction that

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