Now if I am smart, as soon as I finish this 4th edition , I should start the 5th edition by culling all the posts into organized chapters and at least on the road to a flowing reading.
Tonight I looked into my past posts, reaching into 2003 and 2006 for this gem:
Archimedes Plutonium wrote circa 2003 and 2006:
--- quoting in parts Sources: Anders and Ebihara, 1982 Solar-system abundances of the elements Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta Vol. 46, pages 2363-2380. The above table is the abundance compilation Anders and Grevesse, 1988, Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta.
atomic number relative cosmic abundances of the elements based on meteors and analysis of the Sun
Atoms/10^6 Si 1 hydrogen H 2.79 x 10^10 2 helium He 2.72 x 10^9 3 lithium Li 57.1 4 beryllium Be 0.73 5 boron B 21.2 6 carbon C 1.01 x 10^7 7 nitrogen N 3.13 x 10^6 8 oxygen O 2.38 x 10^7 9 fluorine F 843 10 neon Ne 3.44 x 10^6 11 sodium Na 5.74 x 10^4 12 magnesium Mg 1.074 x 10^6 13 aluminum Al 8.49 x 10^4 14 silicon Si 1.00 x 10^6 15 phosphorus P 1.04 x 10^4 16 sulfur S 5.15 x 10^5 17 chlorine Cl 5240 18 argon Ar 1.01 x 10^5 19 potassium K 3770 20 calcium Ca 6.11 x 10^4 21 scandium Sc 34.2 22 titanium Ti 2400 23 vanadium V 293 24 chromium Cr 1.35 x 10^4 25 manganese Mn 9550 26 iron Fe 9.00 x 10^5 27 cobalt Co 2250 28 nickel N 4.93 x 10^4 29 copper Cu 522 30 zinc Zn 1260 31 gallium Ga 37.8 32 germanium Ge 119 33 arsenic As 6.56 34 selenium Se 62.1 35 bromine Br 11.8 36 krypton Kr 45 37 rubidium Rb 7.09 38 strontium Sr 23.5 39 yttrium Y 4.64 40 zirconium Zr 11.4 41 niobium Nb 0.698 42 molybdenum Mo 2.55 43 technetium Tc 44 ruthenium Ru 1.86 45 rhodium Rh 0.344 46 palladium Pd 1.39 47 silver Ag 0.486 48 cadmium Cd 1.61 49 indium In 0.184 50 tin Sn 3.82 51 antimony Sb 0.309 52 tellurium Te 4.81 53 iodine I 0.90 54 xenon Xe 4.7 55 cesium Cs 0.372 56 barium Ba 4.49 57 lanthanum La 0.4460 58 cerium Ce 1.136 59 praseodymium Pr 0.1669 60 neodymium Nd 0.8279 61 promethium Pm 62 samarium Sm 0.2582 63 europium Eu 0.0973 64 gadolinium Gd 0.3300 65 terbium Tb 0.0603 66 dysprosium Dy 0.3942 67 holmium Ho 0.0889 68 erbium Er 0.2508 69 thulium Tm 0.0378 70 ytterbium Yb 0.2479 71 lutetium Lu 0.0367 72 hafnium Hf 0.154 73 tantalum Ta 0.0207 74 tungsten W 0.133 75 rhenium Re 0.0517 76 osmium Os 0.675 77 iridium Ir 0.661 78 platinum Pt 1.34 79 gold Au 0.187 80 mercury Hg 0.34 81 thallium TL 0.184 82 lead Pb 3.15 83 bismuth Bi 0.144 84 polonium Po 85 astatine At 86 radon Rn 87 francium Fr 88 radium Ra 89 actinium Ac 90 thorium Th 0.0335 91 protoactinium Pa 92 uranium U 0.0090 93 neptunium Np 94 plutonium Pu
--- quoting in part Sources: Anders and Ebihara, 1982 Solar-system abundances of the elements Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta Vol. 46, pages 2363-2380. The above table is the abundance compilation Anders and Grevesse, 1988, Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta.
I suspect that if one examines and analyzes the above data, can make the assertion that Dirac's New Radioactivities Additive Creation must be true and at work in having those number data of abundances.
In a Atom Totality where atoms are created by New Radioactivities Additive Creation can you have thorium element 90 at 0.0335 and more abundant than elements 84,85,86,87,88, 89 and tantalum at 73 and of course elements 61 and 43.
Now going in the opposite direction of the abundance of beryllium element 4 at 0.73, we have to wait until element 41, niobium of 0.698 to start to see that range of abundance.
So in my suggested Experiment of taking some liquid water and bombarding it with protons to simulate Cosmic Ray bombardment and afterwards see where the protons went into making newer elements. And then repeating the experiment with say other atoms, we begin to see why the elements are as abundant as found in Nature.
The Big Bang theory would all hinge on luck as to whether there was a Supernova in the vicinity of our Solar System a long time ago before we had a solar system and that supernova brought a Nebular Dust Cloud which would congeal into our Solar System and have those numbers of abundance as reported by Anders et al, above. So alot of probability, happenstance and luck with the Big Bang and its accompanying Supernova and Nebular Dust Cloud.
Contrast that happenstance with the Atom Totality that says our Solar System was built as Dirac describes New Radioactivities of a constant and steady additive creation such as cosmic rays landing where atoms already exist and building the lighter atoms into heavier atoms. Contrast this constant steady construction of heavier elements from lighter elements via Dirac new radioactivities with the throw of the dice in the Big Bang that a supernova is nearby in the distant past and spews out heavy elements in such an exacting proportion as what the Cosmic abundance listed above.
Extremely difficult to believe a supernova can generate thorium atoms with so much abundance. But very easy to see and understand that additive creation by cosmic rays would bypass elements 84 to 89 and then be in a quantum well of stability with thorium at 90 that the protons would be in this quantum well of stability and thus make abundant thorium atoms.
Likewise on the other end of the periodic table of elements that beryllium is so rare when it should not be rare if supernova and star interiors created the elements. In the case of beryllium it is a quantum leakage, not a quantum well, that you add protons to elements 1,2,3, and they do not want to stay put for element 4, but rather the next stable quantum well is carbon of element 6.
Notice also, that apparently the quantum well of stability for creating oxygen atoms via Dirac new radioactivities is far more stable for oxygen than it is for carbon. It is this levels of quantum stability that the Atom Totality with Dirac new radioactivities is far better able to explain the abundance of elements rather than the willy-nilly explanation that a Big Bang with supernova and Nebular Dust Clouds attempts.
The above data is a harmonic sequence of creation of elements that a Additive process is the driving mechanism. So that the Aufbau principle in physics of building atoms, is tantamount to Dirac's new radioactivities of the additions of protons such as cosmic rays.