The highest form of mathematical astronomy in the ancient world can be summarized by the Chinese Remainder Theorem (CRT). By 1961 BCE Chinese astronomers observed the known planets aligned as a 'string of pearls' ... and acted by the CRT to align their calendars by a form of exact indeterminate equations.
That is, your point ...
"If you accept number patterns and sequences as tool of early mathematics you can look the astronomers and mathematicians of ancient Egypt and Mesopotamia and Mesoamerica over the shoulders.
Remembering what I have been told regarding my number columns fourteen years ago I wonder how mathematicians who ponder the most complicated problems can fail when it comes to early mathematics. I go on dreaming of a mathematical subdiscipline that cares about the simplest solution to a given problem."
Egyptians nor Babylonian have been validated using the CRT. Only China, India and Mayan astronomers knew how to use it.
Carl F. Gauss decoded the CRT in 1801 in his famous little 1801 book "Discussions on Arithmetic". Read it as I did in 1964, and ponder how to decode Mayan astronomy recorded in the Dresden Codex by it ... no one has been successful ... YET!
I await someone's use of related Chinese and Vedic mathematical astronomy calculations of many solutions of indeterminate equations to be used as a model ... modified in base 20 arithmetic ...
Using Egyptian and non-CRT methods to decode Mayan astronomy offers a dog that can not hunt!