"Sam Wormley" <firstname.lastname@example.org> wrote in message news:vvSdnTJKtKfNebbMnZ2dnUVZ_u8AAAAA@giganews.com... > On 2/25/13 1:29 PM, DonH wrote: >> An electron can emit, or absorb, a single photon, losing, or gaining, >> energy >> in the process. > > Use this equation: > E^2 = (mc^2)^2 + (pc)^2
The equation that Sammy references has several flaws.
1. It implies that a photon is energy squared.
2. It features the mechanical properties mass and momentum, and ignores the electro-magnetic properties that relate more fundamentally with quanta charge systems.
3. It ignores the fact that energy is not quanta, but is a function of quanta and velocity.
4. If integers and maths are valid and can be used to model physical reality, and we assume that 5^2 = 4^3 + 3^2 the equation that Sammy references implies that mass, momentum and energy have a 3-4-5 relationship, and that energy is represented by the hypotenuse of a right angle.
Detailed examination of electro-magnetic quanta suggests that there is not a 3-4-5 quanta relationship between real power, apparent power and measured power, and consequently between E^2, (mc^2)^2 and (pc)^2 ( If time is homogeneous in the system being observed.)
and it indicates that energy is not located in a hypotenuse, but is the angular displacement lost to external systems, and eventually to the larger universe. (Entropy)
5. It ignores the fact that complex conjugation is needed to interface a system that fits Sammmy's equation with outside systems that fit the equation.
6. Sammy's equation does not consider that photons are polarized..
The fact of the matter is that photon are polarized ACTION events,
and can be one fourth, one half, or one wave length,
of ACTION transferred from a source to a sink system.
The square root of minus one "i" is the best way to model an action event, as it conveys both angular displacement and direction of rotation.
As many units of "i" can be added to some resonant systems, those resonant system are boson storage systems.
i^n = number of bosons transferred. i^n / 4 = number of cycles transferred.
A lossy resonant system loses n units of ACTION per cycle, and if m = the number of cycles stored in a system, m / n = the Q of the system.
I suggest that if Sammy does Bing searches on quarter wave stub quanta of action wave guides "Q" decay of an oscillating system complex conjugation entropy Planck's Constant thermodynamics etc.
and reads and understands what he reads,
that he will see that E^2 = (mc^2)^2 + (pc)^2 applies to a limited subset of infinite Q mechanical systems.
The bottom line is that quanta is best modeled using "i^n" which is integer ("n"), is a natural angular displacement unit, and has a definite polarity, and that models that use higher order properties such as mass and momentum need constants and assumptions to model reality.