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Topic: Dark Energy Solved!
Replies: 2   Last Post: Jul 27, 2013 10:04 PM

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Tom Potter

Posts: 497
Registered: 8/9/06
Re: Dark Energy Solved!
Posted: Jul 27, 2013 10:04 PM
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"Jack Martinelli" <> wrote in message

Snipped long, poorly formatted post.

Regarding "Jack Martinelli" "abstract units".

abstract - Considered apart from concrete existence: an abstract concept.

The units of physics are REAL.

Physics units are quanta of ACTION associated
with a REAL, widely accepted source of ACTION quanta.

In 1896 Wilhelm Wien determined a
distribution law of blackbody radiation
which Max Planck, a colleague of Wien's,
forked into Planck's Constant.

Planck determined the constant [Planck's Constant]
that must be used to express quanta
in terms of angular momentum.

Although events occur in quarter cycle

rather than whole cycle steps,
it is conventional to treat, as Planck did,
a quantum of ACTION as ONE CYCLE,

as people and instruments tend to COUNT quanta
in terms of cycles, rather than quarter cycles
separated by peaks and valleys.

1. The most fundamental physical property is angular displacement.

2. Quantum changes occur when systems exchange angular displacement.

( You can add or take away [quarter] cycles from a pendulum
or oscillating system. )

3. The most fundamental quanta of change is best modeled by "i'
( The square root of minus one. )
which expresses both the magnitude and the direction
of a quantum event.

4. Quantum changes occur in quanta of i^n

5. i^1 = a quarter cycle counter-clockwise angular displacement
i^2 = a half cycle counter-clockwise angular displacement
i^4 = one cycle counter-clockwise angular displacement
i^n = n quarter cycles counter-clockwise angular displacement
i^4n = n cycles counter-clockwise angular displacement

6. The quanta units of angular displacement include:
a. cycles = i^n/4
b. half cycles ( cycles * 2 )
c. Quarter cycles ( cycles * 4)

7. The real number units of angular displacement include:
a. radians = ( 2 * pi * cycles )
( Which is an angular displacement referenced to a radius unit.)
b. action = Planck's Constant * i^n/4
( Which is an angular displacement referenced to an energy unit.)

8. Angular displacements are measured using
an external,REAL, [NOT abstract] standard frequency source.

Since 1967, the International System of Units (SI) has defined
the second as the duration of 9192631770 cycles of radiation
corresponding to the transition between two energy levels of the caesium-133

In other words, although i^n is the most fundamental quanta of change,
in order to measure it,
it must be referenced to a REAL external source,
and at the present time,
that reference is the angular displacement
of an energy level transition of the caesium-133 atom.

9. The Potter Equation
x = e^(i^n * m*pi) = e^((i^n)^2 * k)

expands the static "Euler Identity" equation (e^(i*pi) + 1 = 0)

to express how change occurs.
and is the most fundamental equation of Nature.

( Note that "m" and the "k"
interface quanta angular displacements to a linear space.
2*pi*r, pi*d, k = pi*n*r )

The Potter Equation which features quanta of angular displacement

is more fundamental than e = hf
( Which features Planck's quanta of action.)

and is more fundamental than e = mc^2
( Which features Einstein's non existent quanta of energy.)

10. Change is conveyed from sources to sinks in quanta of i^n,
( Quarter wave quanta )

Planck's Constant is used with a unit reference
to convert angular displacement quanta <n> to action quanta <x>.

( i^n * h = action )

And Einstein's quanta of energy is action quanta "h" affected by velocity.

11. Several other constants come into play
when equating measurements based on
either cycles (Quanta) or radians (Real) to reality

Cycles are bosons and many bosons can occupy a point.

( You can add or take away [quarter] cycles from a pendulum
or oscillating system. )

The measured value of a batch of bosons
depends upon how the measurement is made
and expressed:

peak to peak

Observe that peak and peak to peak
quantize a batch of bosons at a point in time
whereas quasi-peak, average and RMS
quantize the batch over some time period.

11. Quanta of angular displacement tend to
migrate from high temperature systems
to contiguous lower temperature systems.

12. There can be any number of environments
from a particular system to the universal heat sink,
is used to align an inferior environment
to the next environment.

Tom Potter

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