R Hansen says: >I am trying to decipher the cognitive mechanisms behind reasoning and reconcile with the fact that most people struggle immensely with it. You (which is perfectly your right) seem to favor theories that assume this struggle is mere illusion and people are actually, deep down, quite logical.
Not at all - I think people generally come equipped with the potential to understand both logic and math, to some degree that is well beyond what most people *do* attain. The reason why lots of potential goes unrealized is complex, but is at least partly problems of milieu, etc. This is why learning to "see" the world through a "math oriented lens" (or likewise logical) is so beneficial at the right age. It seems to me that that viewpoint is hard to come to by way of a school teacher (rather than family, say) but its possible.
I'm also well aware that (1) people who have learned some logic are still often illogical, (2) people who have learned math are still quite "math irrational" when it comes to many practical parts of their lives. Again, the reasons are complex.
I don't think you will ever find these complex reasons in all your "cognitive deciphering".