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Topic: Potter's electro-magnetic universal distance per mass constant.
Replies: 7   Last Post: Nov 4, 2013 12:44 AM

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Tom Potter

Posts: 497
Registered: 8/9/06
Potter's electro-magnetic universal distance per mass constant.
Posted: Nov 3, 2013 3:31 PM
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This article makes rigorous definitions of Planck's constant and the fine
structure constant and suggests that they are not in fact constants.

Let us consider a system composed of one electron and one proton.

1. Let M(P) = the mass of the proton.
2. Let M(E) the mass of the electron.
3. Let c = a universal distance per time constant. ( The speed of light. )

4. Two bodies interact about a common point in a common time.
The common point is the center of mass of the system
and the common time is the period of the system.

Let T(c) = the common period divided by 2 times pi
= L(c) / c

where L(c) is the distance light travels during one radian of
interaction of the electron-proton system.

5. Let K = Potter's electro-magnetic universal distance per mass constant.
K = 1.0585382 x 10^13 meters per kilogram for E-M interactions.

6. Then the fine structure(E) = ( M(P) * K / L(c) ) ^1/3
and fine structure(E)^0 * L(c) = 1 / ( 2 * Rydberg constant )
and fine structure(E)^1 * L(c) = 2 * pi * Bohr Radius
and fine structure(E)^2 * L(c) = compton's wavelength
and fine structure(E)^3 * L(c) = 2 * pi * classical electron radius
= M(P) * K

As interactions are symmetrical about the common center of mass, we can
define a fine structure constant for the **proton** and obtain the following

fine structure(P) = ( M(E) * K / L(c) ) ^1/3
fine structure(P)^0 * L(c) = 1 / ( 2 * Rydberg constant )
fine structure(P)^1 * L(c) = 2 * pi * Bohr Radius(proton)
fine structure(P)^2 * L(c) = compton's wavelength(proton)
fine structure(P)^3 * L(c) = 2 * pi * classical radius(proton)
= M(E) * K
fine structure(P)^3 * M(P) = fine structure(E)^3 * M(E)

7. Let h(E) be the Planck's constant for an electron.

8. Let h(P) be the Planck's constant for a **proton**.

Note that:
M(E) * M(P) * K^2 = fine(E)^3 * fine(P)^3 * L(c)^2
= h(E) * fine(P) * K / c
= h(P) * fine(P) * K / c

Also note that:
h(E) * K / c = fine(P)^3 * fine(E)^2 * L(c)^2
= M(E) * K * fine(E)^2 * L(c)

and symmetrically:
h(P) * K / c = fine(E)^3 * fine(P)^2 * L(c)^2
= M(P) * K * fine(P)^2 * L(c)

Equations showing the simpliest relationships between Planck's constant
and the Fine structure constant:
fine(P) * h(P) = M(P) * M(E) * K * c
fine(E) * h(E) = M(P) * M(E) * K * c

Note: As K and c are universal constants, and as we are considering rest
masses to be constant, h(X) and fine(X) must vary reciprocally when a
system such as a hydrogen atom is changing states.

The relationship between the orbital velocity of a body and the fine
structure constant is:
sine(X) = velocity(X) / c = fine(X) * charge ratio


1. The common period is associated with Rydberg's constant.
In other words, the distance symmetrical to both bodies
is the reciprocal of Rydberg's constant. The other distances
( comptons wavelength, etc. ) relate to a particular body.

2. If we assume that rest masses are constants, we have to acknowledge that
the h's and fine structure constants must vary for a system to
accomodate change. The simpliest system would consider the rest masses
to be constant, the distance common to the masses L(c) to be an
independent variable and all other properties to be dependent variables.

Note that the distance L(c) is related to the common period of the system.

3. Schrodinger's Equation would be symmetrical to both the electron and the
proton if it were based on the mass products rather than a "constant"
associated with only one of the bodies. The equation works because the
incoming and outgoing frequencies are common to both parties to an
interaction. Schrodinger's Equation, like Planck's constant
is biased in favor of the electron.

4. I emphasized distances, rather than more fundamental times and angular
displacements, in order to more clearly show the relationships between
the common physical constants.

5. Observe that the foregoing is for a one electro/one proton system,
and the ELECTRO-MAGNETIC shape of these particles would determine
how the Exclusion Principle comes into play.

6. The fundamental unit of reality is a cycle,
and Planck's constant for the electron
equates the radius of an electron cycle to a unit of electron ACTION,
and Planck's constant for the proton
equates the radius of an proton cycle to a unit of proton ACTION,

Tom Potter

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