Date: Dec 6, 2011 11:15 PM
Author: Richard Hake
Subject: Re: Research on the Extent of Active Learning - Merbitz's PSI Plug
Some subscribers to MathEdCC might be interested in "Research on the
Extent of Active Learning - Merbitz's PSI Plug" [Hake (2011b)]. The
ABSTRACT: In "Re: Research on the Extent of Active Learning" [Hake
(2011a)] at <http://bit.ly/u63GbO>, I stated "the glacial inertia of
the educational system, though not well understood, appears to be
typical of the slow 'Diffusion of Innovations' [Rogers (2003)] in
SClistserv's Chuck Merbitz (2011) responded (paraphrasing): "I'm not
surprised at the glacial pace or the burial of innovations: 20 years
ago Sherman (1992) reviewed the 'Personalized System of Instruction
(PSI)' a highly effective innovation published most famously 43 years
ago by psychologist Fred S. Keller (1968)
<http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fred_S._Keller> in 'Goodbye,
teacher....' . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . In her book
"Mastery Learning in the Science Classroom: Success for Every
Student," Kelly Morgan (2011)] speculates that PSI is not widely used
because *its very success at teaching students was a factor in its
abandonment* - it upsets the social structure when too many learners
master the material, a finding that has been replicated in the
precision teaching world
<http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Precision_teaching>. . . . .[[My
Insert: "and in the physics education world
<http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Physics_education>"]]. . . . ."
For another take on the demise of PSI see "The rise and fall of PSI
physics at MIT" [Friedman et al. (1976)] at <http://bit.ly/vMlEdD>.
For the burial of innovations see, e.g., "Re: Interactive Engagement
Has Many Forms" [Hake (2005] at <http://bit.ly/voy3vd>.
To access the complete 17 kB post please click on <http://bit.ly/sD6S9f>.
Richard Hake, Emeritus Professor of Physics, Indiana University
Honorary Member, Curmudgeon Lodge of Deventer, The Netherlands
President, PEdants for Definitive Academic References
which Recognize the Invention of the Internet (PEDARRII)
Links to Articles: <http://bit.ly/a6M5y0>
Links to SDI Labs: <http://bit.ly/9nGd3M>
"And it ought to be remembered that there is nothing more difficult
to take in hand, more perilous to conduct, or more uncertain of
success, than to take the lead in the introduction of a new order of
things. Because the innovator has for enemies all those who have
done well under the old conditions, and lukewarm defenders in those
who may do well under the new. This coolness arises partly from fear
of the opponents, who have the laws on their side, and partly from
the incredulity of men, who do not readily believe in new things
until they have had a long experience with them. Thus it happens that
whenever those who are hostile have the opportunity to attack they do
it like partisans, whilst the others defend lukewarmly...."
Machiavelli ("The Prince," 1515)
"The PRIMA FACIE AFFRONT: Whereas I have spent a significant fraction
of my professional life perfecting my lectures and otherwise
investing conscientiously in the status quo, therefore to suggest an
alternative is, by definition, to attack me."
Halfman et al. (1977)
REFERENCES [All URL's shortened by <http://bit.ly/> and accessed on 6
Hake, R.R. 2011a. "Re: Research on the Extent of Active Learning,"
online on the OPEN! AERA-L archives at <http://bit.ly/u63GbO>. Post
of 4 Dec 2011 19:01:5-0800 to AERA-L and Net-Gold. The abstract and
link to the complete post are being transmitted to several discussion
lists and are also on my blog "Hake'sEdStuff" at
<http://bit.ly/tMRRqi> with a provision for comments.
Hake, R.R. 2011b. "Research on the Extent of Active Learning -
Merbitz's PSI Plug" online on the OPEN! AERA-L archives at
<http://bit.ly/sD6S9f>. Post of 6 Dec 2011 15:09:34-0800 to AERA-L
and Net-Gold. The abstract and link to the complete post are being
transmitted to several discussion lists and are also on my blog
"Hake'sEdStuff" at <http://bit.ly/vUvgKY> with a provision for
Halfman, R., M. L.A. MacVicar, W.T. Martin, E.F. Taylor, & J.R.
Zacharias. 1977. "Tactics for Change." MIT Occasional Paper No. 11;
online at <http://bit.ly/s8z5xL>. Thanks to John Belcher for placing
this gem on the web.
Machiavelli, N. 1515. "The Prince," translated by W.K. Marriott,
online at <http://bit.ly/vXOWVU> thanks to the "Constitution Society."