Date: Dec 9, 2012 12:40 AM

This topic comes as a continuation to thought presented in this Usenet
in posts:

what are sets? again

Attn: See the corrected form of this theory at the discussing thread
of it.

Background Theory.

Here I'll present a simple modification of background theory that
widens its conceptual coverage.


Language: FOL (=,P,Rp,0)
P is the binary relation "is part of"
Rp is the binary relation "represents"
0 is a constant symbol.

Background Theory is the collection of all sentences entailed (via
rules of FOL(=,P,Rp.0)) by the following non logical axioms:

Define: x PP y <-> x P y & ~ y P x

ID axioms +
I. Part-hood: [for all z. z PP x -> z P y] <-> x P y
ll. Anti-symmetry: x P y & y P x -> x=y

Def.) atom(x) <-> ~ Exist y. y PP x
Def.) x atom of y <-> atom(x) & x P y.
Def.) c is a collection of atoms iff for all y. y P c -> Exist z. z
atom of y.
Def.) g is atomless <-> ~ Exist x. x atom of g

lll. Atomistic parts: [x is a collection of atoms & for all z. z atom
of x -> z P y] -> x P y

lV. Representation: x Rp c & y Rp d -> (x=y<->c=d)

V. Composition: if phi is a formula in which y is free but x not,
then ([Exist y. atom(y) & phi] -> [Exist x. x is a collection of
& (for all y. y atom of x <-> atom(y) & phi)]) is an axiom.

Define: x=[y|phi] <-> [x is a collection of atoms & (for all y. y
of x <-> atom(y) & phi)]

For convenience writable finite collections of atoms shall be simply
denoted by a string of those atoms embraced within solid brackets [],
so [a] is the collection of atoms, that has one atom which is a, of
course [a]=a; similarily [a,b] is the collection of atoms a and b.

Vl. Null. atom(0) & ~Exist x. 0 Rp x.

Define: x is descriptive <-> x=0 OR Exist y. x Rp y
Define: x is a descriptive atom <-> atom(x) & x is descriptive.
Define: x is a collection of descriptive atoms <->
[x is a collection of atoms & for all y. y atom of x -> y is

A set is defined as an atom that uniquely represents a collection of
descriptive atoms or otherwise signify non representation.

"signify" in the above definition refers to "witnessing" of absence of
representation and that witness is some fixed non representing atom
denoted by the primitive constant symbol 0.

Define: Set(x) <->
x=0 OR [atom(x) & Exist y.(y is a collection of descriptive atoms & x
Rp y)]

Set membership is defined as being an atom of a collection of
descriptive atoms that is represented by an atom.

Define: x member of y <-> Exist z. z is a collection of descriptive
atoms & y Rp z & atom(y) & x atom of z

The curly brackets shall be used to denote SETs, so {a,b,c,...}
for the Set representing [a,b,c,...], also {x|phi} will stand for the
Set representing [x|phi], { } stands for 0.

So for example the set {miami} is an atom that represents the atom
"miami" that represents the collection of all atoms of the real city

So MIAMI is the collection of real atoms (i.e. physical atoms)

MIAMI = [m_1, m_2,...,m_n]

and miami is the atom representing MIAMI, so miami is a descriptive
atom but it is not a set since what it is describing is not a
collection of descriptive atoms, since atoms MIAMI is composed from
are not descriptive objects. So miami is an Ur-element.

However {miami} is a set since it is a descriptive atom representing
the descriptive atom miami.

So here with this approach Ur-elements can represent collections of
physical atoms.