In a recent post someone whose name I could not determine suggested an interesting type of problem about applications of the integral concept:
I give a series of graphs (sketches), with descriptions of quantities on each axis, and numbers on each axis. On each graph I draw a point on the graph, and I shade in an area beneath a portion of the graph. The directions are:
For each graph, (a) say in words what the indicated point tells you (use specific numbers) (b) say in words what the indicated area represents, or say "the area doesn't mean anything."
(Part a is less important than part b; it's there mainly to get them to think about the meaning of the graph.)
The graphs are sketches of:
(1) x: time (months); y: price of gasoline ($) (2) x: time (days); y: daily wombat sales (ferrets/day) [graph has a bump up during the Christmas shopping season] (3) x: time (years); y: population of your town (thousands) (4) x: time (years); y: birth rate (births/year) (thousands) (5) x: time (days since impregnation); y: cow's daily milk production (gal/day) (6) x: time (days); y: the height of a plant (cm) (7) x: time (days); y: daily sales at a store ($) (8) x: time (hours); y: rate of change of temperature (degrees F per min)
I understand this suggestion to mean that the graphs whose sketches are provided are potential integrands, and the question is whether an integral with this integrand would have any meaning.
This type of question could be analyzed using the fact that integrals can be approximated by Riemann sums. Here is an example of this type of analysis applied to the first example:
If values of the integrand have unit designation "dollars (per gallon)", then each of the products making up a Riemann sum estimate of the integral would be the product of a number with designation "dollars per gallon" and a number with designation "months." Thus, the products making up this sum would have unit designation "dollars per gallon-month." The Riemann sum would have the same designation, as would the integral which it approximates. An integral which equals a number of "dollars per gallon-month." would seem to have no meaning.
On the other hand, in the second example, values of the integrand have unit designation "ferrets (sold) per day" and the products making up the Riemann sum have designation "ferrets (sold) per day times days" = "ferrets sold." An integral with this designation might be of interest to the manager of a pet store.
The same kind of dimensional analysis can be applied to the examples involving densities cited in the same post:
(2) [based on Harvard Calculus, p. 423 (I changed r from 1 to 1.5)]:
If the density of air at a height h is given by P = 1.28e^(-0.000124h), where P is the density in kg/m^3 and h is the height above ground level in m, find the mass of a cylindrical column of air 25 km high with a diameter of 3 m.
Suppose a function models data points described as (height in meters measured from the ground, the area of a cross section of this cylindrical column of air at this height). Then an integrand function whose values have unit designation "kg/m" can be formed by multiplying this function (with values m^2) by the function which models the pairs (heights above the ground, the density of the air at that height in kg/m^3). The products making up Riemann Sums approximating an integral would have unit designation "m^2 times kg/m^3 times m" or, "kg." The integral would then measure the weight of the column of air.
Thanks to the unidentified donor for suggesting this analysis.