What struck me about this article (see below) were the things mentioned that may deter greater participation of women in mathematics, in particular lack of women role models and "macho" atmospheres which may be uncomfortable or unattractive to women.
I noticed that in the UK about 38 % of the bachelor's degrees in mathematics are women, I believe that it is not uncommon for institutions in the states to graduate as many (or more) women as men at that level. (Does anyone have current data on that?) Since on many campuses calculus is the sequence from which we recruit many majors, perhaps one way of measuring the effectiveness of the calculus sequence would be to assess its success in attracting as many women as men to continue in mathematics.
I would like to hear more about how departments do measure the effectiveness of their calculus sequence. Do any of you look at question above? I'm assuming that success rates within the courses are common (how many started the courses, and how many of them successfully completed). What about tracking students successful in one course to see how they did in subsequent ones? Do you assess the "satisfaction" of client departments such as engineering or physics? What other things do you assess or measure?
Once you have collected whatever sorts of information, how do you use the information gathered to further improve your courses?
Thanks for any insights any of you can give the rest of us. Marj
>X-Sender: firstname.lastname@example.org >Date: Wed, 6 Mar 2002 11:27:25 -0800 >To: email@example.com >From: Jerry Becker <firstname.lastname@example.org> >Subject: UK: First woman lecturer makes history in mathematics > >************************* From The Guardian [UK], Monday, March 4, 2002. See >http://education.guardian.co.uk/higher/maths/story/0,9842,661660,00.html >************************* >Lecturer makes history in maths > >By Karen Gold > >A woman has won the UK's most prestigious award for a young >mathematician, the Adams Prize, for the first time in its 120-year >history. > >Dr Susan Howson, 29, a Royal Society fellow and lecturer at >Nottingham University, was lauded by the judges - an international >array of maths professors - for her research on number theory and >elliptic curves. > >Previous winners of the £12,000 prize, awarded by Cambridge >University, include the physicist James Clark Maxwell and >geometrician Sir William Hodge. > >Although cryptographers will use Dr Howson's work, she is a pure >mathematician, choosing her subject "because of the beauty of the >theorems". > >This sets her apart from most of the other top women mathematicians >in the UK, who are almost entirely concentrated in applied maths or >statistics. > >Dr Howson believes women are deterred from working in pure maths not >only by the lack of role models - she had only male teachers as a >Cambridge undergraduate - but also by its highly competitive nature. > >"I think some girls are put off by that, and female undergraduates >seem to drop out because they are not as confident as the men. >Competition doesn't usually bother me, but I worked at MIT >[Massachusetts Institute of Technology] for a year and I was >uncomfortable with the very macho atmosphere: who was working the >hardest, staying the latest. > >"I think women may be a bit less obsessional and single-minded than >men on average, and since those characteristics can help with maths >that may make a difference." > >Statistics collected by the London Mathematical Society bear out the >story that at every stage beyond school, increasing numbers of women >drop out of maths. > >In 1998 (the latest available figures) women comprised 38% of maths >undergraduates. At postgraduate level that proportion had fallen to >29%, while just 18% of university lectureships were held by women. > >Women made up 7% of senior lecturers and 2% - nine individuals - of >university professors. > >The biggest improvements in almost 10 years have been at the lower >levels. In 1990 only 33% of maths undergraduates, and 21% of >postgraduates were women. > >At the top, the change is fractional: women have gone from four to >7% of senior lecturers, and from one to 2% of professors. > >Dr Helen Robinson, senior lecturer in maths at Coventry University, >also believes the working atmosphere in pure maths is a major >deterrent to some women. > >"Women are inclined to get discouraged, and people do discourage >them. You still get people, though not as many as you once did, who >say that women aren't any good at pure maths," she said. > >"It's not necessarily intentional. Young male research students can >seem extremely sure of themselves and women are put off by this. >It's partly to do with the style of pure maths: you say something >and someone comes back at you and says 'you're talking rubbish'. >It's a very argumentative style in which people put forward opinions >without thinking about them a great deal, expecting to see them >knocked down. Women are less happy about doing that." > >Dr Howson attributes her success to encouragement at >Burley-in-Wharfedale middle school in West Yorkshire and her teacher >David Womersley. > >"Most of the time at that age we were supposed to be doing long >division and fractions, but he took time off from that every week to >do investigations and teach us how to really think," she said. > >She has no mathematical background; her father is an electrician, >her mother a secretary. "I was just encouraged at school all the way >through to university. When I first arrived at Cambridge I found it >quite overwhelming, but Corpus Christi was very encouraging too. >I've never really encountered any off-putting attitudes or >discrimination." > >Dr Robinson, recalling her experience as the only female in a >45-strong postgraduate cohort at Warwick University 25 years ago, >could not say the same. "I do think attitudes have changed now, but >it was very, very lonely. > >"There are more women staying on to do research, and gradually they >are moving up the ladder. The British Women in Mathematics group and >the LMS also organise meetings, aimed at encouraging research >students. But when I was doing my MSc, if I gave the right answer to >a question in a lecture and some male students had got it wrong >before me, the lecturer would say: 'Look she can do it, and she's >only a girl'." >********************************************** >-- >Jerry P. Becker >Curriculum & Instruction >Southern Illinois University >Carbondale, IL 62901-4610 >Phone: (618) 453-4241 [O] > (618) 457-8903 [H] >Fax: (618) 453-4244 >E-mail: email@example.com
Marjorie (Marj) Enneking, Ph.D. Professor of Mathematics and Director, OCEPT (Oregon Collaborative for Excellence in the Preparation of Teachers, a statewide project funded by the National Science Foundation) Department of Mathematical Sciences Portland State University Portland, OR 97207-0751 503-725-3643 (Office Phone) 503-725-3661 (Fax) firstname.lastname@example.org http://www.mth.pdx.edu/OCEPT