Many college students are enrolled in the pernicious cycle of Elementary Algebra, Intermediate Algebra, and College Algebra--where they continue to do the same mindless symbolic manipulations of meaningless algebraic expressions that they did in high school. The sad fact is that some of these high school graduates are placed in pre-algebra courses. In 1998, I developed such a course starting with a problem set like the one posted at:

Three years earlier, I had completely overhauled my College Algebra course, eleminating all the mindless review from the doorstop that I was required to use, and starting with problems like the ones posted at: