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Jerry P. Becker

Posts: 13,489
Registered: 12/3/04
[ncsm-members] Madam Montessori
Posted: Feb 9, 2012 3:27 PM
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From Smithsonian Magazine, September 2002. See
http://www.smithsonianmag.com/people-places/montessori.html?c=y&story=fullstory
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Madam Montessori

Fifty years after her death, innovative Italian educator Maria
Montessori still gets high marks

By Nancy Shute

Six-year-old shari and her 5-year-old classmate Ugochi are adding
1,756 and 1,268. [See PICTURE SIDEBAAR at
http://www.smithsonianmag.com/people-places/montessori.html?c=y&story=fullstory
] They've penciled the numbers neatly into their notebooks, but the
method they're using to come up with the answer-3,024-isn't something
you'd see in most American schools, let alone kindergartens. Each
little girl loads a wooden tray with gold beads. Sprawled on a mat on
the floor, they combine six of Shari's beads and eight of Ugochi's.
"Nine units, ten units!" Ugochi counts triumphantly. With that, she
scoops up ten beads and skips across the room to a cabinet, where she
trades them in for a "10 bar"-ten beads wired together. Now the girls
count in unison: "five 10s, six 10s, seven, eight, nine, ten 10s!"
Then, pigtails flying, they run to trade in the 10s for a 100.

The 21 other children in the class at the public Matthew Henson
Elementary School in Landover, Maryland, seem equally energetic as
they follow their own independent agendas. Fiveyear- old Taiwo lays
out wooden letters that spell "May is back. I am happy." Nearby, two
4-year-old boys stack pink blocks, watch them topple, then stack them
again, this time with the larger ones on the bottom. A 3-year-old
uses a cotton swab to polish a tiny silver pitcher- a task that
refines motor skills-while a 5- year-old gets herself a bowl of
cereal, eats it at the snack table, then cleans up everything.

Nearly a century ago, a young Italian physician imagined that
children would learn better in a classroom like this one-a place
where they could choose among lessons carefully designed to encourage
their development. Since then, the views of Maria Montessori, who
died 50 years ago this year, have met with both worldwide acclaim and
yawning indifference. Her method, which she developed with the
children of Rome's worst slum, is now more commonly applied to the
oftpampered offspring of the well-heeled. Montessorians embrace Maria
and her ideology with a fervor that often borders on the cultlike,
while critics say Montessori classes are either too lax and
individualized or, paradoxically, too rigidly structured. "

Her ideas were so radical," says Mary Hayes, general secretary of the
Association Montessori Internationale (AMI). "We're still trying to
convince the world that this is the best way for children to grow."

Teacher rosemary beam alcott sits on the floor with Ugochi and Shari,
who show her their notebooks. "Did you exchange your 10 ones for a 10
bar? Did you carry? Did you write it down? How many 100s do you have?"

"None," Ugochi replies.

"That's great!" says Alcott.

She turns to Taiwo. "May is back. I am happy. Me is flowers," the
child and teacher read together.

"It doesn't make sense," Alcott says. Taiwo giggles.

Back to the mathematicians. "Ugochi, please show me a 3 going in the
right direction." Ugochi erases, and writes again. "Good job! OK, put
the beads away. I'm going to give you another problem."

Back to Taiwo, whose letters now read, "May is back. I am happy the
flowers smell good."

"Wow!" exclaims Alcott. "What a wonderful story."

Now a 5-year-old boy brings her his work. Using pieces from a wooden
puzzle, he has traced the states around Texas on a piece of paper,
colored them, copied labels and pasted them onto his new map.
"Louisiana, Arkansas, Oklahoma, New Mexico," reads Alcott. "Very
good!"

Montessori's own life was fraught with conflict and controversy. Born
in 1870, of genteel origins, she fought doggedly for the right to
study medicine, becoming Italy's first female physician. Yet she
abandoned medicine to embrace education, a profession she had once
scorned.

An outspoken advocate of women's rights, for years she hid the fact
that she was the mother of an illegitimate child. Little Mario was
sent to a wet nurse in the country and later to boarding school. It
wasn't until he was 15, and Montessori's own mother had died, that
she publicly acknowledged her son and brought him to live with her.

Yet whatever her personal travails, Montessori's educational vision
has not only survived into a new century, it is thriving as never
before. Many of her once-radical ideas- including the notions that
children learn through hands-on activity, that the preschool years
are a time of critical brain development and that parents should be
partners in their children's education-are now accepted wisdom. "She
made a lasting contribution," says David Elkind, professor of child
development at TuftsUniversity and author of The Hurried Child. "She
recognized that there was an education particularly appropriate to
young children, that it wasn't just a smaller-sized second grade."

Indeed, a half century after her death, Montessori methods are used
increasingly in public schools like Henson, in Prince George's
County, Maryland, where 400 children are on a waiting list for
Montessori classes. The county adopted Montessori in 1986 as part of
a school desegregation program, and parents have fought hard to keep
it.

Doris Woolridge, who has three daughters, including Shari, in
Montessori classes at Henson, believes the system can hold its own,
even in this era of increased emphasis on standardized exams. "To see
a 5-year-old adding into the thousands-I'm just amazed," says
Woolridge, an attorney for the District of Columbia. "I saw them
working with the beads, and they learned so quickly." Among other
things, Woolridge approves of the Montessori idea of multiage
classrooms. "The younger kids mimic the older kids," she says, "and
the older ones help lead the class."

Perhaps none of Maria Montessori's ideas sound as revolutionary now
as they once did, but in her time she was a breaker of barriers. Born
in the Italian province of Ancona, she grew up in a time when
teaching was one of the few professions open to educated women. Her
father, an accountant, urged her to take that path, but her mother
supported Maria's insistence, at age 12, that she attend a technical
school to study mathematics. In her teens, Maria further tested her
father's patience by considering becoming an engineer. She gave that
up only because she decided to be a doctor.

University officials finally surrendered to her persistence, but
Maria's fellow medical students shunned her, and she was allowed to
perform dissections only at night, alone, because it was unthinkable
that men and women would view a naked body together. In 1896, at age
25, Maria completed her medical degree. "So here I am: famous!" she
wrote to a friend. "It is not very difficult, as you see. I am not
famous because of my skill or my intelligence, but for my courage and
indifference towards everything."

Fame, however earned, had its privileges. Later that year, Montessori
was asked to represent Italy at an international women's congress in
Berlin. The press swooned over the charming, bright-eyed young doctor
who called for equal pay for women. "The little speech of Signorina
Montessori," wrote one Italian journalist, "with its musical cadence
and the graceful gestures of her elegantly gloved hands, would have
been a triumph even without her medical degree or her timely spirit
of emancipation-the triumph of Italian feminine grace."

Back home in Rome, Montessori began caring for private patients and
doing research at the University of Rome's psychiatric clinic. At the
asylum, she came in contact with children labeled "deficient and
insane," though most were more likely autistic or retarded. Locked
all day in barren rooms, they would scuffle over crumbs of bread on
the floor. Observing them, Montessori realized that the children were
starved not for food but for stimulation. That set her to reading
widely, in philosophy, anthropology and educational theory. Mental
deficiency, she decided, was often a pedagogical problem.
Experimenting with various materials, she developed a sensory-rich
environment, designing letters, beads and puzzles that children could
manipulate, and simple tasks such as mat weaving that prepared them
for more challenging ones. After working with Montessori for two
years, some of the "deficient" children were able to read, write and
pass standard public-school tests.

If retarded children could conquer such exams, Montessori wondered,
what results would her methods have on normal youngsters in
traditional classroom settings? She visited schools and found
students "like butterflies mounted on pins," she wrote, "fastened
each to his place, the desk, spreading the useless wings of barren
and meaningless knowledge which they have acquired." Montessori's own
barely formed vision combined Jean- Jacques Rousseau's philosophy of
the nobility of the child with a more pragmatic view that work-and
through it the mastery of the child's immediate environment-was the
key to individual development.

To do that, she maintained, each child must be free to pursue what
interests him most at his own pace but in a specially prepared
environment. Montessori's chance to act on her philosophy came in
1906 when a group of real estate investors asked her to organize a
program for the children in Rome's downtrodden San Lorenzo district
so that the children, whose parents were off working all day, would
not deface building walls. The investors gave Montessori a room in
one of the buildings and 50 preschoolers, ages 2 to 6. Her medical
colleagues were amazed that she would involve herself in something as
mundane as day care, but Montessori was undeterred. She asked society
women to contribute money for toys and materials and hired the
daughter of the building's porter to assist her.

The Casa dei Bambini, or Children's House, opened January 6, 1907. At
first, Montessori just observed. She noticed that the children came
to prefer her teaching materials to toys and would spend hours
putting wooden cylinders into holes or arranging cubes to build a
tower. As they worked, they became calmer and happier. As the months
passed, Montessori modified materials and added new activities,
including gardening, gymnastics, making and serving lunch, and caring
for pets and plants. Children who misbehaved were given nothing to do.

The children soon started asking Montessori to teach them to read and
write. So she devised sandpaper letters that they could touch and
trace, pronouncing the sounds as they did so. One day during recess,
a 5-year-old boy cried excitedly, "I can write!" and wrote the word
mano-hand- with chalk on the pavement. Other children began writing,
too, and news of the miraculous 4- and 5-year-olds who taught
themselves to write traveled quickly.

Acolytes from around the world flocked to Rome to sit at Montessori's
knee, and soon Montessori schools were popping up in Switzerland,
England, the United States, India, China, Mexico, Syria and New
Zealand. Alexander Graham Bell, who had started his career as a
teacher of the deaf, was fascinated by Montessori and in 1912
established a Montessori class in his Washington, D.C. home for his
two grandchildren and a half-dozen neighborhood kids. A Montessori
class, taught in a glass-walled classroom, would be one of the most
popular exhibitions at the 1915 Panama- Pacific International
Exposition in San Francisco. But success proved more than even
Montessori could handle. Though she had resigned her university chair
to concentrate on the schools, she found herself overwhelmed by the
demands for lectures, training and interviews. She complained
bitterly about books describing her program and insisted that only
she was qualified to train teachers. The fact that she had patented
her teaching materials irked more than a few critics, one of whom
decried the act as "sordid commercialism."

Other educators also raised questions. Most prominent among them was
William Heard Kilpatrick, a disciple of John Dewey, who dismissed
Montessori's methods as too formal and restrictive, failing to spark
children's imaginations sufficiently. By the 1920s, interest in
Montessori had waned in the United States.

A Montessori revival began in the late 1950s, led by Nancy Rambusch,
a mother frustrated by the lack of choices for her children's
education. After going to Europe for Montessori training, she started
a school in Greenwich, Connecticut. Others followed. Today, there are
some 5,000 Montessori schools in the United States, some affiliated
with AMI, others with the American Montessori Society, founded by
Rambusch. Some schools using Montessori methods are not certified at
all, and some that claim to use them do anything but. The little
research that exists on the benefits of the method indicates that
Montessori students do well in the long term, but more research is
needed. "We have to verify that we're in tune with brain development,
and that our kids are prepared at all levels," says Jonathan Wolff, a
Montessori teacher and consultant in Encinitas, California.

Lilian Katz, professor emerita of early childhood education at the
University of Illinois, says the criticisms of Montessori's
methods-obsession with the "correct" use of blocks and beads, the
lack of emphasis on fantasy and creativity- are valid but don't
compromise the value of the program. "It's pretty solid," says Katz.
"The strategies the teachers use are very clear. Children seem to
respond well."

With pinched budgets, little time for recess or music, and increased
emphasis on standardized tests, these are tough times in education.
But Maria Montessori's legacy has never been more valued, even as it
adapts to meet the needs of a new century. For some teachers, says
Paul Epstein, head of the Chiaravalle Montessori School in Evanston,
Illinois, "the materials have become the method. But you can do
Montessori with a bucket of sticks and stones or any set of objects
if you know the principles of learning." Epstein's middle school
students don't play with blocks. Instead, they're doing something
Maria never imagined, but doubtless would like. Last year, they ran
the school's snack bar, a hands-on task designed to help them with
skills they will need as adults: common sense and time management.
Says Epstein with a smile: "They're learning to be entrepreneurs."
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PHOTO SIDEBAR: A doctor before she became an educator Maria
Montessori developed strategies and materials that a century later
are being adopted by more and more classrooms (such as this one in
Landover Maryland). A doctor before she became an educator, Maria
Montessori developed strategies and materials that, a century later,
are being adopted by more and more classrooms (such as this one in
Landover, Maryland). 2002 Kay Chernush
***************************************************
--
Jerry P. Becker
Dept. of Curriculum & Instruction
Southern Illinois University
625 Wham Drive
Mail Code 4610
Carbondale, IL 62901-4610
Phone: (618) 453-4241 [O]
(618) 457-8903 [H]
Fax: (618) 453-4244
E-mail: jbecker@siu.edu



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