Book ? Parallel Worlds? by Michio Kaku. # ? According to the picture emerging from the WMAP satellite, a mysterious antigravity force is accelerating the expansion of the universe. If it continued for billions or trillions of years, the universe will inevitably reach a big freeze . . . .? / page 288 / In 1854, . . . . Helmholtz realized that the laws of thermodynamics could be applied to the universe as a whole, meaning that everything around us, including the stars and galaxies, would eventually have to run down.? / page 289 / ==.. There isn?t laws of thermodynamics without the ? Ideal gas?. There isn?t thermodynamics of cosmos without the ? Ideal gas?. ==.