Quoting from ____________The Earth is Round (p<.05) (Dec. 1994, American Psychologist).
___If a person is an American, then he is probably not a member of Congress (TRUE RIGT?) ___The person is a member of Congress. Therefore, he is probably not an American (Rolland & Richardson, 1987).
This is formally exact, the same as: If H0 is true, then it result (statistical significance) will probably not occur. This result has occurred Then H0 is probably not true and therefore formally invalid. ________________________________________
It seems a joke . . . Because it is demanded that every member of the US Congress be an American citizen we are completely out of context of NHST. The Cohen?s formal similitude is hilarious at the highest degree. Prior to a classical NHST both hypotheses, Null and Alternative must be possible to occur - not equally probable in general. The Congress members is a subset of American people, set S, and its complementary 1-S members have not the property P = be potentially a member of the Congress.