Let me try deriving the neutron rest-mass. The proton is 938 MeV and neutron is 939.6 for a ratio of almost 1. So this is probably a very easy derivation for all we need is two Lambda or Sigma particles that decay into proton or neutron and whose mean life in seconds are virtually identical.
Now looking in Halliday & Resnick, 1986 Appendix F, I see the Lambda and Xi particles almost identical in mean life of 2.5*10^-10 seconds and 2.9*10^-10 seconds. I see the Sigma minus of 1.4*10^-10 almost equal to the Omega at 1.3*10^-10 seconds. So what is the message I am trying to draw out of this. The message is that someone could play the very same silly game with photons that was played for composite particles of electrons, and protons. In New Physics there are only three elementary fundamental particles-- proton, electron and photon and the neutrino is pure wave. All the composite particles are fancy dressed up versions of protons or electrons and they are unimportant whereas the proton and electron are important.
If we wanted to play a silly game we could look at the photons and call the radio wave a radio particle and then the microwave a microwave particle and the red photon a red particle and the green photon a green particle and pretend these are as different as pretending the Lambda, Sigma, Omega are different and fundamental particles when they are not so. All the photons are one batch of particles. All the baryons are just extra dressed with energy protons. All the leptons are just extra fancy dressed electrons.
An analogy to biology serves well here. In biology, every human is a human. But if a physicist of the Standard Model had his way about it, he would classify a cowboy wearing a hat as a elementary and fundamental human and far different from a business man wearing a suit and tie, as if he were not a human and a new species. To a good and true scientist, all humans are just humans regardless of the superficial clothes they are wearing. To a Standard Model physicist, that wants to pander Quark theory, then how dressed up a human is, turns him or her into a fundamentally different species from another dressed up human.
Now I need a chapter for the Glossary of concepts and terms of Physics. Unfortunately this chapter is late in this edition of the book, and in future editions it should be near the beginning of the textbook. A glossary helps the logic of the scientist at work, and helps to avert contradictions.
In my derivation above, I really do not derive the value of 939 MeV for the neutron, provided if the mass of the proton is unknown. So let me wrestle with this concept of mean life and the concept of Space being either Euclidean, Elliptic or Hyperbolic and where you have such
Euclidean = Elliptic unioned with Hyperbolic
The proton is in Elliptic geometry and the electron is in Hyperbolic. The neutron is unstable outside the atom and decays into a proton and electron. So Euclidean geometry in the neutron is unstable whereas Euclidean geometry of the photon is very stable. So that question has to be addressed.
But let me start with a concept of rest-mass*(mean-life) =s for something. So we have r*m = s. For the neutron we have 939MeV * 918 seconds = 8.6*10^5 MeVseconds
Now for the muon, this new concept of r*m we have:
105MeV*(2*10^-6 seconds) = 2*10^-4 MeVseconds
However, if we do that for the K+ meson of its rest mass approx 500 MeV and its mean life of approx 1.2*10^-8 seconds we get a magnitude of 6 *10^-6 MeVseconds.
So that somewhere between a muon and a K+ meson sits a electron-type particle that matches the neutron's r*m value.
You see, in New Physics, charge is the three geometries and the Maxwell Equations are the three geometries and the interplay between those 3 geometries. So that a proton or neutron, gives up Space in order to have more rest-mass which is volume-of-Space. Whereas a electron wants a lot of space and gives up most of its rest-mass in order to have a lot of space.
In the formula: Euclidean = Elliptic unioned Hyperbolic we can rewrite that as Neutron = proton + electron.
When the neutron is inside the atom nucleus, the nuclear electron has little space that it had outside the atom and that nuclear electron goes into the Strong Nuclear force of binding together the other protons.
In my next post, I need to elaborate on what are lines in Euclidean versus Elliptic and Hyperbolic geometries. Because some formulas of physics are Euclidean geometry such as the Ohm's law of V = iR, but others such as E = 1/2 mv^2 or E = mc^2 are Elliptic geometry lines.
So in New Physics, we separate out which equations belong to Euclidean geometry and thus charge of 0 and which belong to Elliptic geometry and thus of charge +1 and involving protons and which belong to Hyperbolic geometry of charge -1 and thus involving the electron.
In Old Physics, no-one ever payed any attention or ever recognized that formulas and equations of physics have a domain in which they arise and come from. Equations of square or square roots are not lines of Euclidean geometry and are lines of either Elliptic or Hyperbolic geometry. And that was a huge fault and mistake of Old Physics, to think that all their equations were Euclidean Geometry borne and relevance.
-- Google's archives are top-heavy in hate-spew from search-engine- bombing. Only Drexel's Math Forum has done a excellent, simple and fair archiving of AP posts for the past 15 years as seen here: