"Absolutely Vertical" <email@example.com> wrote in message news:firstname.lastname@example.org... > On 4/4/2013 2:14 AM, Tom Potter wrote: >> "Absolutely Vertical" <email@example.com> wrote in message > >>> why do you think such a standard is required? >> >> If you want to determine the orthogonally of anything, >> a house, a pyramid, a football field, the universe, >> I suggest that you need an ORTHOGONAL standard. >> > > the question is whether you need a standard for every kind of measurement > you want to make? in other words, do i need a standard for measuring 45 > degree angles? do i need a standard for 37.3 degree angles? > what about a standard for measuring speed or acceleration?
Once you establish an orthogonal standard, you can use your time/space standard to subdivide the space into radians, mils, degrees, etc.
just as you use your time/space standard to divide a line into meters, inches, miles, etc.
Regarding Absolutely Vertical" question: "what about a standard for measuring speed or acceleration?"
You don't need standards for ALL properties, you only need standards for the minimum number or orthogonals that can be used to quantify a measurement.
1. Starting with the assumption that man has a recursable, linear memory at his disposal, he can compare a single point to itself ( Auto-correlation) and use the period as his time standard.
2. He can incorporate the concept of time-interval by adding a second point, and correlating the first point with second point ( Cross-correlation ) using the auto-correlation as his time-period standard
3. He can then use his time-period standard to quantize times and his time-interval standard to quantize spaces.
For example, assuming that he uses the day as his time period standard, he can "count" the number of standard day units in a moon cycle, a year cycle, the life of various plants and animals, etc.
and he can compare time-period (times) to time-intervals (Spaces) in many ways, including the number of days it takes to travel some distance, the days it takes for a tree to grow, etc.
4. One can determine velocity, acceleration, jerk, snap, crackle and pop, by using only his time-period and time-interval standards.
For example in observing things growing, man can see and compare the various "velocities" in the growth rates, and if a growth rate is not linear, he can use an acceleration factor to adjust his equation and to plot the growth on a time-space plot.
5. Observe that physics is the process of mapping a physical system onto a math system, using the minimum number of orthogonal, and projecting the evolution of the physical system using rules based on centuries of math evolution.
6. Maxwell observed that a measurement consisted of two parts, a standard and the number of standard units required to make up the measurement,
and he made an effort of express all physical properties in terms of a minimum number of standard units.
He selected time, three orthgonal, linear and homogeneous spaces, (del) and mass to serve as his orthogonals and his "pointers " to all of the physical properties, and as the technology at the time did not allow him to determine the impedance of space, he used Faraday's concepts of permeability and permittivity to link the mechanical properties to the newly emerging electro-magnetic properties which were based on the orthogonal "charge" property.
It is interesting to see that Maxwell computed the speed of light using Faraday's permeability and permittivity constants.
The following URL is a short graphic look at how a small set of "orthogonals" are used as pointers to ALL of the physical and electro-magnetic properties.