In a message dated Tue, 5 Oct 2004 16:48:14 -0400 (EDT), Fred Shapiro <email@example.com> asks: > > Can anyone help me find the earliest evidence of the following quotation: > > Pure mathematics, may it never be of any use to anyone. > Henry John Stephen Smith, quoted in Howard Eves, Mathematical > Circles Squared (1972)
I haven't found the exact quote, but I've found similar sayings attributed to Hardy.
Paul Hoffman _The Man Who Loved Only Numbers_ New York: Hyperion, 1998, ISBN 0-7868-6362-5, page 162 <begin quote> many of the brightest minds in mathematics have prided themselves on doing math that has no applications. Math for math's sake was the rallying cry. They feared real world relevance might distract from the pristine order and beauty that mathematics laid bare. When Euclid was investigating prime numbers, he was proud that they contributed nothing practical to Greek life. G. H. Hardy, too, reveled in his uselessness. "I have never done anything 'useful,'"he once said, not as an apology,but in defiance. "No discovery of mine has made, or is likely to make, directly or indirectly, for good or ill, the least difference to the amenity of the world." Hardy was a committed pacifist, who proudly claimed that his area of expertise, number theory, would never be used by the military. <end quote>
Benjamin H. Yandell _The Honors Class: Hilbert's Problems and Their Solvers_ Natick, Massachusetts: A. K. Peters, 2002, ISNB 1-56881-141-1, page 167 <begin quote> Utility is never the goal and rarely the result. Hardy defended all of mathematics on that ground and believed that freed mathematics from the horrible association with war that he saw in science. Unfortunately, writing in 1940, he honored Einstein and Dirac as mathematicians and gave relativity and quantum mechanics as examples of useless mathematics: "Almost as uyseless as number theory. [Hardy p. 131]" <end quote? Unfortunately the bibliography has two different books by Hardy that could be the source of this quote: _A Mathematician's Apology_ Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1969 _Ramanujan: Twelve Lectures on Subjects Suggested by his Life and Word_ New York: Chelsea, 1959.
Another quote by Hardy, also in Yandell, page 213: "Archimedes will be remembered when Aeschylus is forgotten, because languages die and mathematical ideas do not."