The number of women holding faculty positions on college campuses has increased since 1975, but women remain more likely than men to be hired for lower-paying positions, says a new report.
The percentage of female faculty at all types of institutions increased to 33.8% in 1997-98, compared with 22.5% in 1974-75, says the report, published in the January-February issue of Academe, the journal of the American Association of University Professors.
Still, the report says, women at all types of institutions, from four-year research universities to two-year community colleges, are most likely to be instructors or lecturers, the lowest faculty job levels. More than half of all lecturers (55.6%) and instructors (58.6%) are women, it says, while 18.7% of professors, 34% of associate professors and 46.8% of assistant professors (the entry-level position for full-time faculty) are women.
Part of the explanation for disparities is that a greater proportion of women than men are new entrants to the field and have less seniority, says author Ernst Benjamin.
The report also found that the percentage of women increased in non-tenure-track faculty - a category that offers the least opportunity for advancement - while their ranks decreased in tenure-track appointments.
Benjamin says "any comprehensive explanation" of the disparity must address "social practices" common to women, such as primary responsibility for child rearing.
The report found that within each job category, males earn more than females. Male professors, for instance, on average make 12.5% more than female professors.
The report also notes that women are more likely to work at community colleges, which generally pay less than four-year institutions.
******************************************* * Jerry P. Becker Dept. of Curriculum & Instruction Southern Illinois University Carbondale, IL 62901-4610 USA Fax: (618)453-4244 Phone: (618)453-4241 (office) E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org