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 TOPICS This page:   number theory    Search   Dr. Math See also the Dr. Math FAQ:   0.9999 = 1   0 to 0 power   n to 0 power   0! = 1   dividing by 0   number bases Internet Library:   number theory HIGH SCHOOL About Math Analysis Algebra    basic algebra    equations/graphs/      translations    linear algebra    linear equations    polynomials Calculus Complex Numbers Calculators/    Computers Definitions Discrete Math    permutations/    combinations Exponents    Logarithms Fibonacci Sequence/   Golden Ratio Fractals Functions Geometry    Euclidean/plane      conic sections/        circles      constructions      coordinate plane      triangles/polygons    higher-dimensional      polyhedra    non-Euclidean    practical geometry    symmetry/tessellations History/Biography Interest Logic Negative Numbers Number Theory Physics/Chemistry Probability Projects Puzzles Sequences/Series Sets Square/Cube Roots Statistics Transcendental   Numbers Trigonometry Browse High School Number Theory Stars indicate particularly interesting answers or good places to begin browsing. Selected answers to common questions:     Diophantine equations.     Infinite number of primes?     Testing for primality.     What is 'mod'? C++ Program to Convert Decimal to Binary [10/26/1999] Can you show me a C++ routine that converts decimal numbers to binary? Cubes as Differences of Squares [07/04/2002] Prove that the cube of any positive integer is equal to the difference of the squares of two integers. Cute Numbers [08/29/2003] I have found two definitions of a cute number. Which is correct? Cyclic Redundancy Check [06/26/2002] I understand how cyclic redundancy checks work, but I fail to see how appending zeros to the message string (before the division) provides an advantage. Dates that Read the Same Backwards and Forwards [02/02/2010] A student sees a palindrome in the date 01 02 2010, and wonders how to generate all such palindromic dates. Building on another math doctor's work with date arithmetic, Doctor Carter shares a program written in C, then goes on to explain the purpose of each line of code. Decimal Expansion of a Reciprocal [10/23/2001] 1/(X + Y + Z) = 0.XYZ. Dedekind Cuts [10/23/1996] What is a Dedekind cut? Defining 0/0 [01/29/2001] I convinced my teacher that 0/0 must be defined, since our math laws say that anything divided by itself equals 1. Shouldn't 0/0 = 1? Definition of Floating Point Data [07/02/2001] What are 'floating point data'? How do they differ from an integer? What are some examples? Definitions of Advanced Concepts [11/13/1998] Can you give me definitions for: Pythagorean Triplets, Principle of Duality, Euclid's Elements, Cycloid, Fermat's Last Theorem? Definitions: Relatively Prime, Proper Factor [9/11/1996] What does it mean to be relatively prime? What is a proper factor? Density Property of Rational Numbers [09/21/2001] How is the density property of rational numbers proven? Deriving Properties of Fractions [08/10/2003] Derive the rule for multiplying fractions, that a/b x c/d = ac/bd, using lower-level properties of multiplication and rational numbers. Determining Factors of a 3998-digit Number [08/11/1999] Let N = 111...1222...2, where there are 1999 digits of 1 followed by 1999 digits of 2. How can I express N as the product of four integers, each of which is greater than 1? Determining If a Large Number is Divisible by 11 [10/22/2003] I just learned a trick to decide whether a large number is divisible by 11 or not. Why does the trick work? Determining Primes by Their Square Roots [06/13/2001] My problem has to do with determining if a very large number is a prime. Diagonal Sum in Pascal's Triangle [04/02/2001] Find the sum of the reciprocals of the diagonals in Pascal's triangle. Difference of Square Numbers [07/18/2008] Can one number ever be represented as two distinct differences of squares? Or is every difference of square numbers unique? Different Infinities [02/19/1997] How many different infinities are there? Digital Computers and Binary [07/02/2000] How do digital computers use the binary number system? Digit Patterns of the Powers of 5 [09/14/1998] Why is there a pattern in the last digits of the powers of 5? Digits of a Square [05/26/2001] If the tens digit of a^2 (a is an integer) is 7, what is the units digit? Digits Sums, Mod Proofs, Olympiad Squares, and Equal Roots [12/15/2011] A student seeks help with four different number theory proofs. Doctors Carter and Vogler offer observations, textbook recommendations, and other guidance. Diophantine by Process of Elimination [01/10/2015] A teen knows the integer solutions to 2^x - 3^y = 5, but seeks proof. Doctor Vogler steps through an approach that starts by reducing the equation mod m, where neither of the bases 2 and 3 has an order. Diophantine Equations [11/17/1997] We have searched the Web for information about Diophantine equations. Diophantine Equations [06/29/2001] Find rational x and y such that x^2+x^2*y^2 and y^2+x^2*y^2 are perfect squares, or, more simply, x^2+x^2*y^2 = m^2 and y^2+x^2*y^2 = n^2, where n and m are rational numbers. Diophantine equations in Number Theory [01/24/2001] If a and b are relatively prime positive integers, prove that the Diophantine equation ax-by = c has infinitely many solutions in the positive integers. Diophantine Equations in Three Variables [10/30/2004] I need to know how to get positive integer solutions of two Diophantine equations having three variables. For example: 2x + 3y + 7z = 32 ; 3x + 4y - z = 19. (Give the positive set of triples for the above equations.) Diophantine Equations, Step by Step [10/01/2002] Find all positive integer solutions to 43x + 7y + 17z = 400. Diophantine Equation to Find Perfect Square Values [03/19/2008] Given a long polynomial such as 4x^4 + x^3 + 2x^2 + x + 1, how can I find positive integers that would produce a perfect square value when substituted into the polynomial? Direct Conversion of Binary to Octal [05/14/2002] How can you convert from base 2 to base 8 without going through base 10? Discrete Logarithm Problem [10/13/2004] Given a === b^c mod N. When a, b, and N are given, can we find c? Displaying Large Repetends on Small Calculators [05/31/2002] How can I find a 16-digit repetend using an 8-digit calculator? Distance between Points on a Line [10/02/2002] When the 10 distances between 5 pairs of points on a line are listed from smallest to largest, the list reads: 2,4,5,7,8,k,13,15,17,19. What is the value of k? Dividing 29/49 [08/30/1997] Can I divide 29/49 out until it repeats itself or terminates without using long division? Divisibility by 11: Proof [02/12/2002] Prove that a positive integer n is divisible by 11 if and only if the alternating sum of its digits is divisible by 11. Divisibility by 37 [11/08/1997] Take a 3-digit number and add to that its "rotation". Prove that the sum can always be divided by 37. Divisibility by 3 in Three Consecutive Numbers [10/07/2002] With any combination of consecutive natural numbers, why is one integer divisible by three and why is ONLY one number divisible by 3? Divisibility by 8 [04/14/1997] Show that, if n is a positive integer, then 5^n+2*3^(n-1) + 1 is divisible by 8. Divisibility by Three: Proof [07/22/2003] Why is the sum of the digits of a multiple of 3 divisible by 3? Page: [] [last>>]

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