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Reverse Modulus Operator


Date: 10/09/2001 at 07:13:05
From: Charles
Subject: Reverse modulus operator

In mathematics, for each action we do, there is normally a reverse 
action that allows us to get back to the original two numbers. This 
can be seen in the relation between addition and subtraction, 
multiplication and division, or even logarithmic and exponential 
functions. 

I am curious to find out if there is an operator that would return 2 
when we we do 6 * 0, * being this new operator.


Date: 10/09/2001 at 11:57:20
From: Doctor Roy
Subject: Re: Reverse modulus operator

Hello,

Thanks for writing to Dr. Math.

I assume that you mean the modulus operator as used in computer 
science, i.e.  6 mod 2 = 0.

There cannot possibly be a well-defined inverse operation. This can be 
seen easily following this example:

    6 mod 2 = 0
    6 mod 3 = 0

Let's call the inverse operation invmod

    6 invmod 0 = ?    2 or 3 or 1 or 6 or ?

Since there cannot be a single value that satisfies this operation, it 
is not well-defined.

It turns out that there are several operations that work in one 
direction and have no inverse operation.

I hope this helps.

- Doctor Roy, The Math Forum
  http://mathforum.org/dr.math/   


Date: 10/09/2001 at 12:15:03
From: Doctor Peterson
Subject: Re: Reverse modulus operator

Hi, Charles.

Interesting question! I don't think the final answer will be what you 
want, but the thinking on the way there will be worth having gone 
through.

You have probably learned about inverse functions, and know that not 
every function has an inverse. The same is true of inverse operations. 
The existence of an inverse is not "normal," but a very special 
situation. The reason you think of it as normal is that invertible 
operations are particularly useful, so we tend to use them and give 
them names. Among familiar operations, therefore, invertibility is 
common, though not by any means universal.

Also, it's worth noting that not all operations are commutative, as 
addition and multiplication are. When an operation is not commutative, 
you have to be careful about order, and it turns out that there are 
two different kinds of inverse you can talk about. For addition, the 
inverse operation, subtraction, is defined by

    (x + y) - y = x

    (x - y) + y = x

We can call subtraction the "right inverse" of x, since doing it on 
the right of an addition undoes that addition. (I'm not positive that 
this is a standard term in this context, but I think it's right.) If 
we try to make subtraction a "left inverse," we find that it doesn't 
quite work:

    x - (x + y) = -y

    x + (x - y) = -y

That happens because subtraction is not commutative.

You are asking about the "mod" (remainder) operation. Recall that this 
is defined by

    x mod y = z  if x = ny + z for some integer n, and 0 <= z < y

(I'll ignore questions that arise if x or y are negative.)

Apparently you want a left inverse of the mod operation, which we'll 
call "*", that gives the divisor when you know the dividend and 
remainder, so that if

    x mod y = z         e.g. 6 mod 2 = 0

then

    x * z = y           e.g. 6 * 0 = 2

This can be written as

    x mod (x * z) = x   e.g. 6 mod (6 * 0) = 0

    x * (x mod y) = y   e.g. 6 * (6 mod 2) = 2

The problem is that there is not just one divisor for a given dividend 
and remainder:

    6 mod 1 = 0

    6 mod 2 = 0

    6 mod 3 = 0

    6 mod 6 = 0

Which of 1, 2, 3, and 6 should be the result of 6*0?

The same sort of problem occurs with the "right inverse," which gives 
the dividend given the divisor and remainder:

    (z ** y) mod y = z   e.g. (0 ** 2) mod 2 = 0

and

    (x mod y) ** y = x   e.g. (6 mod 2) ** 2 = 6

This time, we see that

    2 mod 2 = 0

    4 mod 2 = 0

    6 mod 2 = 0

and so on, so there are many solutions to the equation

    x mod 2 = 0

and no one value to choose for 0 ** 2.

Just as with functions, the fact that the "mod" operation takes 
multiple inputs to the same output makes an inverse operation 
impossible.

However, just as we have an inverse function "square root" that 
inverts the square function _when we restrict the domain of the 
latter_, we can do the same here. It's not very useful, however. Note 
that

    x mod y = x  when 0 <= x < y

so if we restrict the function f(x) = x mod y to that domain, the mod 
function becomes the identity function f(x) = x. Therefore, the 
inverse operation is simple:

    x ** y = x when 0 <= x < y

What this does is to find ONE of many possible dividends that give the 
desired remainder, namely the remainder itself. Another approach would 
be to have a multivalued "function" that gives ALL possible dividends; 
this is

    x ** y = x + ny, for any integer n

It's a little more complicated to do this for your "*" operation. Here 
you would want to find either one, or all, divisors that leave the 
given remainder. Given that

    x mod y = z

we can express this as

    x = ny + z for some integer n

To solve for y, we get

    y = (x-z)/n, for any integer n that divides (x-z)

Therefore,

    x * z = 1

or

    x * z = x - z

or

    x * z = smallest factor of x-z greater than 1

are possible partial inverse operations that give ONE possible 
divisor; and

    x * z = all divisors of x-z

gives all possible answers. But that doesn't really give you what you 
wanted, does it? Defining the inverse doesn't help in actually doing 
it.

You may be interested in these answers related to the mod function:

   What is Modulus?
   http://mathforum.org/library/drmath/view/54363.html   

   Mod Function and Negative Numbers
   http://mathforum.org/library/drmath/view/52343.html   

This one, about inverse operations, is also worth reading:

   Inventing an Operation to Solve x^x = y
   http://mathforum.org/library/drmath/view/54586.html   

- Doctor Peterson, The Math Forum
  http://mathforum.org/dr.math/   
    
Associated Topics:
College Number Theory
High School Functions
High School Number Theory

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