Associated Topics || Dr. Math Home || Search Dr. Math

### DeBruijin Diagrams/Shift Register Graphs

```
Date: 10/30/2001 at 12:53:05
From: Anthony Di Bona
Subject: Graphing Theory - DeBruijin Diagrams/Shift Register Graphs

We are currently studying de Bruijin diagrams and shift register
sequences. I've been able to draw some simple examples e.g. D(2,4)
for 'p' letters = 2 and words of length 'n' = 4.  I just know there
must be a general layout to these things to make them more elegant
looking.

My specific problem is how to graph D(3,3) and then come up with a
shift register sequence from that graph. I know the idea is to connect
an arc from word b1b2...bn-1 to every word of the form b2b3...bn.
With 27 arcs coming off 9 vertices, things get out of hand fairly
quickly. Is there a shape I should be aiming for?
```

```
Date: 10/31/2001 at 03:14:28
From: Doctor Pete
Subject: Re: Graphing Theory - DeBruijin Diagrams/Shift Register
Graphs

Hi,

I assume that the problem here is not really about the structure of
the graph, but rather how to draw the graph in a way that reveals its
structure more clearly. The other part of the question, i.e., finding
a de Bruijn sequence from the graph, is not too hard because there are
many to choose from, and all it amounts to is finding an Eulerian
circuit on the corresponding digraph.

That said, the particular way I want you to arrange the nine vertices

{00, 01, 02, 10, 11, 12, 20, 21, 22}

is to imagine them on the Cartesian plane with the following
coordinates:

00:  (0,0)
11:  (0,2)
22:  (0,-2)
10:  (1,1)
21:  (1,0)
02:  (1,-1)
01:  (-1,1)
12:  (-1,0)
20:  (-1,-1).

There is a certain logic to this arrangement, because we can now
easily draw the following directed edges, which are straight lines:

001:  (0,0) -> (-1,1)
002:  (0,0) -> (1,-1)
100:  (1,1) -> (0,0)
200:  (-1,-1) -> (0,0),

010:  (-1,1) -> (1,1)
101:  (1,1) -> (-1,1)
202:  (-1,-1) -> (1,-1)
020:  (1,-1) -> (-1,-1),

and so forth, the other segments being 012, 120, 021, 210, 110, 011,
220, 022. These are pretty obvious. The next ones are also straight
line segments, but they cross over the previously drawn edges: 122,
221, 211, 112. The next 4 edges are curved, but are not difficult to
draw in a systematic/symmetrical way:

121, 212, 102, 201.

The remaining 3 edges are the loops: 000, 111, 222.  You may verify
that we have enumerated all 3^3 edges. You may also verify that each
vertex, as drawn, has in-degree 3 and out-degree 3.

I'd say this is about the clearest way to draw this particular graph.
From here it is not difficult to find an Eulerian circuit by trial and
error.  This I leave up to you.

- Doctor Pete, The Math Forum
http://mathforum.org/dr.math/
```
Associated Topics:
College Discrete Math

Search the Dr. Math Library:

 Find items containing (put spaces between keywords):   Click only once for faster results: [ Choose "whole words" when searching for a word like age.] all keywords, in any order at least one, that exact phrase parts of words whole words

Submit your own question to Dr. Math
Math Forum Home || Math Library || Quick Reference || Math Forum Search