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### Topology

```
Date: 03/19/2001 at 09:21:32
From: shumi
Subject: What is Topology?

Hello, Dr.Math.

I'm a college student in Taiwan, and I major in math. I haven't
studied topology, but I want to know something agout it. Can you tell
me what topology is?

Thanks!  :)
```

```
Date: 04/02/2001 at 10:09:25
From: Doctor Nbrooke
Subject: Re: What is Topology?

Good morning Shumi, and thanks for writing to Dr. Math.

Topology is the study of properties of objects that are preserved
though twisting, squishing, and stretching, but not tearing.

In topology, a circle is equivalent to an ellipse, since you can
squish a circle into an ellipse and stretch an ellipse into a circle.
They both have the same topological properties. You can change the
geometry (basically the distance between points in an object) of an
object by stretching it, but not its topology.

When we study topology we learn which properties of an object are
preserved through these operations, like its orientability and its
genus (basically the number of "holes" in it). A doughnut and a coffee
cup are topologically equivalent since they are both solid objects
with only one hole; it is possible to deform a doughnut into a coffee
cup without tearing, and vice versa.

Once we know what types of properties we're looking for, we study the
different types of objects, called manifolds, and how they relate to
each other. We learn about tori, projective planes, Moebius strips,
and Klein bottles - and that's only in two dimensions! You know that
if you remove a point from a circle you get a line segment; well, if
you remove a point from a Klein bottle you get two Moebius strips.

This is a very cursory introduction to the study of topology, but I
hope it helps you to know what to expect soon. Please feel free to
write back.

- Doctor Nick, The Math Forum
http://mathforum.org/dr.math/
```
Associated Topics:
High School Definitions
High School Geometry
High School Higher-Dimensional Geometry
Middle School Definitions
Middle School Geometry
Middle School Higher-Dimensional Geometry

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