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### Sigma Notation

```
Date: 12/17/98 at 01:11:15
From: Artem Pyatakov
Subject: Calculus

Dear Dr. Math,

We just learned about sigma notation and summation formulas in my
calculus class. Unfortunately, our teacher only showed us 4 formulas:
("Sum" refers to the symbol sigma)

Sum(k), Sum(i), Sum(i^2), Sum(i^3)

We also learned that you can Sum(U1)+Sum(U2)=Sum(U1+U2) and that

Sum(ki) = kSum(i).

However, I would like to know more on the sigma topic. Can someone
please tell me more formulas? For example: what is the formula for
Sum(i^k) (i raised to any power)? Also what is the formula for sum(i),
but not starting with 1 (any number).

Do you know of an easy way to find Sum((n+1)^2), I mean without
distributing and then doing separate sums (I have been experimenting
with changing bounds but it's hard without other formulas).

I am getting no sleep trying to figure out some formulas, so please
help me.

Artem
```

```
Date: 12/17/98 at 08:09:29
From: Doctor Jerry
Subject: Re: Calculus

Hi Artem,

"What is the formula for Sum(i^k) (i raised to any power)?"

There is a formula, one discovered a long time ago by Bernoulli.  See
the web site

http://mathworld.wolfram.com/BernoulliNumber.html

You will have to look through several pages of stuff until you come to
what you want. If the page is not available on the day you try, wait a
few days and try again.

"Also what is the formula for sum >(i), but not starting with 1 (any
number)."

I suppose you could write this as sum(k=m,k=n,k). I'm sure you can
see that

sum(k=1,k=m-1,k) + sum(k=m,k=n,k) = sum(k=1,k=n,k).

There is a formula for the first and last of these.

"Do you know of an easy way to find Sum((n+1)^2)"

Yes, just change the index of summation and then adjust a little.

Letting n+1=N,

sum(n=1,n=m,(n+1)^2)
= sum(N=2,N=m+1,N^2)
= sum(N=1,N=m+1,N^2) - 1

then apply the standard formula for Sum(n^2).

You might also find the following link in our archive to be helpful.

http://mathforum.org/dr.math/problems/kijjaz11.24.98.html

- Doctor Jerry, The Math Forum
http://mathforum.org/dr.math/
```
Associated Topics:
High School Number Theory

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