Converting Binary and Decimal to Hexadecimal and BackDate: 08/12/2001 at 22:56:40 From: robert coleman Subject: Bin to hex conversions also decimal to hex Convert binary numbers to hexadecimal, and reverse. Also convert decimal to hexadecimal numbers. Date: 08/13/2001 at 03:33:30 From: Doctor Jeremiah Subject: Re: Bin to hex conversions also decimal to hex Hi Robert, It would helps if you explained your current level of understanding and described what kind of answer you were looking for. Since I don't have this information I can only give you a basic overview of the subject. I encourage you to write back with a more specific question. As you probably know, binary numbers have digits just like decimal numbers with one difference: the decimal digits go from 0 to 9, but the hexadecimal digits can only go from 0 to 1. So as with decimal numbers, when you get to the largest number that is allowed in a digit you start on the next place value. In decimal, after you get to the largest digit value (9) you go back to 0, but you increment the digit in the place value to the left. Binary is the same: when you get to the largest digit value (1) you go back to 0 and increment the digit in the place value to the left. So binary numbers go (in order): 0, 1, 10, 11 ... Hexadecimal numbers are exactly the same except that there are 16 different digit values. Because each digit must be only one character, we need to use all the numbers (0 through 9) and then use some alphabetic characters (A through F). So when a hexadecimal digit gets to 9, it doesn't go back to 0; instead it goes on to A. After it gets to F it goes back to 0 and increments the digit in the place value to the right. So hex numbers go: 0, 1 ... 9, A ... F, 10, 11 ... Binary to hexadecimal is very easy because hexadecimal numbers are designed specifically so that each hex digit is exactly 4 bits (i.e. 16 different values). So if you had this binary number: binary: 100011011011110101000100001 You could put in commas every four places (starting on the left): binary: 100,0110,1101,1110,1010,0010,0001 Then you could write the hex values immediately below: binary: 0100,0110,1101,1110,1010,0010,0001 hex: 4 6 D E A 2 1 and the hex value would be 46DEA21. How did we come up with this translation of digits? binary decimal hex 0000 0 0 0001 1 1 0010 2 2 0011 3 3 0100 4 4 0101 5 5 0110 6 6 0111 7 7 1000 8 8 1001 9 9 1010 10 A 1011 11 B 1100 12 C 1101 13 D 1110 14 E 1111 15 F Do you see why I said that each hex digit was 4 bits? To convert a hexadecimal number back to binary you generate 4 bits for each hex digit: hex: 4 6 D E A 2 1 binary: 0100 0101 1101 1110 1010 0010 0001 So converting between binary and hex is easy because it has been defined in such a way that is easy. Converting to and from decimal is harder because decimal is not based on an integral number of binary bits. We need to learn how to change between arbitrary bases. It all relies on how numbers work. Each place value in a number has a certain value. For example: 7431 = 7*10^3 + 4*10^2 + 3*10^1 + 1*10^0 where ^ means "with an exponent of" And binary is the same way: 110101 = 1*2^5 + 1*2^4 + 0*2^3 + 1*2^2 + 0*2^1 + 1*2^0 So to convert binary into decimal all you need to do is add up those values: 1*2^5 ==> 32 + 1*2^4 ==> + 16 + 0*2^3 ==> + 0 + 1*2^2 ==> + 4 + 0*2^1 ==> + 0 + 1*2^0 ==> + 1 ------- ---- = 110101 = 53 That's how to convert binary into decimal. Hex is done the same way: F40A2 = F*16^4 + 4*16^3 + 0*16^2 + A*16^1 + 2*16^0 = 15*16^4 + 4*16^3 + 0*16^2 + 10*16^1 + 2*16^0 (F) 15*16^4 ==> 983040 + (4) 4*16^3 ==> + 16384 + (0) 0*16^2 ==> + 0 + (A) 10*16^1 ==> + 160 + (2) 2*16^0 ==> + 2 ------------- -------- = F40A2 = 999586 converting to decimal is the easy direction. To convert decimal to binary you do this: decimal: 12345 Step 1: Divide the decimal number by 2. The remainder is the rightmost binary digit. Step 2: Then truncate the result (take just the integer part and throw away the remainder). Step 3: Divide the integer decimal number from Step 2 by 2. The remainder is the binary digit just to the left of the ones you have found up until now. step 4: If the integer part is zero, you are done. If not, Go to Step 2. When you actually do it it looks like this: decimal: 12345 Step 1: 12345/2=6172 remainder 1 ==> 1 Step 2: new value is 6172 Step 3: 6172/2=3086 remainder 0 ==> 01 Step 4: 3086 > 0 so go to step 2 Step 2: new value is 3086 Step 3: 3086/2=1543 remainder 0 ==> 001 Step 4: 1543 > 0 so go to step 2 Step 2: new value is 1543 Step 3: 1543/2=771 remainder 1 ==> 1001 Step 4: 771 > 0 so go to step 2 Step 2: new value is 771 Step 3: 771/2=385 remainder 1 ==> 11001 Step 4: 385 > 0 so go to step 2 Step 2: new value is 385 Step 3: 385/2=192 remainder 1 ==> 111001 Step 4: 192 > 0 so go to step 2 Step 2: new value is 192 Step 3: 192/2=96 remainder 0 ==> 0111001 Step 4: 96 > 0 so go to step 2 Step 2: new value is 96 Step 3: 96/2=48 remainder 0 ==> 00111001 Step 4: 48 > 0 so go to step 2 Step 2: new value is 48 Step 3: 48/2=24 remainder 0 ==> 000111001 Step 4: 24 > 0 so go to step 2 Step 2: new value is 24 Step 3: 24/2=12 remainder 0 ==> 0000111001 Step 4: 12 > 0 so go to step 2 Step 2: new value is 12 Step 3: 12/2=6 remainder 0 ==> 00000111001 Step 4: 6 > 0 so go to step 2 Step 2: new value is 6 Step 3: 6/2=3 remainder 0 ==> 000000111001 Step 4: 3 > 0 so go to step 2 Step 2: new value is 3 Step 3: 3/2=1 remainder 1 ==> 1000000111001 Step 4: 1 > 0 so go to step 2 Step 2: new value is 1 Step 3: 1/2=0 remainder 1 ==> 11000000111001 Step 4: 0 = 0 so quit So decimal 12345 is actually binary 11000000111001 Hex is done the same way, except instead of dividing by 2 you divide by 16. That's basically how conversions between bases works. If this doesn't answer your specific questions, please write back. - Doctor Jeremiah, The Math Forum http://mathforum.org/dr.math/ |
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