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Finding Number of Trailing Zeros in Factorials

Date: 01/27/2005 at 13:16:05
From: Martin
Subject: counting trailing zeros of factorials in any base system

I noticed a way to compute the number of trailing zeros of a factorial
in base 10 or 6 at your site.  But that method doesn't work for me in
base 4, 8, 16, etc.  I think it is because the primes for those bases 
are the same, i.e. 2*2*2*2 for base 16.

I noticed that some factorials in base ten have the same amount of
zeros when in base 16, such as 10!.  I've also tried to mess with
exponents and use something like floor(n/x^i)+... where n is the
factorial and i increases from 1 to y until floor is at least 1.  For
the starting x I tried the base 16 primes of 2, then 2*2, then 2*2*2,
but none worked.



Date: 01/28/2005 at 18:06:32
From: Doctor Vogler
Subject: Re: counting trailing zeros of factorials in any base system

Hi Martin,

Thanks for writing to Dr. Math.  To count trailing zeros in any kind
of number N in any base b, first you should factor your base (b) into
products of prime powers.  Then you should check how many times each
prime in b divides the number N.  Here is the part you are asking
about:  For each of those primes, divide the number of times it
divides N by the exponent of the prime in b, and round down to the
nearest integer.  The smallest number you get (for all the primes) is
the number of final zeros that N has in base b.

Let's do an example.  Suppose we want 700! in base 120.  First we
factorize 120:

  120 = 2^3 * 3 * 5.

Now we count how many times 2 goes into 700!.  By the techniques from

  Trailing Zeros and Zero Factorial
    http://mathforum.org/library/drmath/view/55844.html 

and other places in our archives, which you surely already read, the
number is

  [700/2] + [700/4] + [700/8] + ... + [700/256] + [700/512]
     = 350 + 175 + 87 + 43 + 21 + 10 + 5 + 2 + 1
     = 694.

Then we divide that by the exponent of 2 in 120, which is 3 (2^3
divides 120),

  694/3 = 231.33,

which rounds down to 231.

Now we do the same for 3 and 5.  Of course, since this is a factorial,
we know the number of times 3 divides 700! will be at least as big as
the number of times 5 divides 700! (although since we had to divide
the 2s by 3, we still needed to check those).

Then 5 goes into 700!

  [700/5] + [700/25] + [700/125] + [700/625]
     = 140 + 28 + 5 + 1 = 174.

And 174 is smaller than 231, so there will be 174 trailing zeros in
base 120.  Similarly, there will be 231 trailing zeros in base 8, and
694 trailing zeros in base 2, and

  [694/4] = 173

trailing zeros in base 16 (hexadecimal).

If you have any questions about this or need more help, please write
back and show me what you have been able to do, and I will try to
offer further suggestions.

- Doctor Vogler, The Math Forum
  http://mathforum.org/dr.math/ 


Date: 01/29/2005 at 03:33:45
From: Martin
Subject: Thank you (counting trailing zeros of factorials in any base
system)

Thanks, it works now! 8)
Associated Topics:
High School Number Theory

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