 The Beginnings of Set Theory  MacTutor Math History Archives
Linked essay describing the rise of set theory from Cantor (with discussion of earlier contributions) through the first half of the 20th century, with another web site and 25 references (books/articles).
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 Behavioural Calculus  Orfeo Bernardo
Behavioural Calculus with Analytical and Visual 3Space, designed for Windows 98 or better. Site also includes promotional freeware; registration required. If site does not load, try using Internet Explorer.
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 Behind the Numbers  Jonathan Sills; ESPN SportsZone
A monthly column that explores the gray area between math and sports and what happens when exact calculations meet the human, unpredictable factors that make sports so entertaining. A combinatoric and probabilistic analysis of changes in World Cup soccer
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 Being a Professional Mathematician  Mann, Tony; and Good, Chris
Resources about becoming a mathematician include recorded interviews with them, historians, and representatives of the professional bodies and learned societies that support them; outline worksheets for undergraduates; suggested essay topics, project
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 Belgian Mathematical Society (BMS)  Société Mathématique de Belgique  Belgisch Wiskundig Genootschap
The Belgian national mathematics society. Includes staff, conference details, preprint servers, archived newsletters, positions vacant in Belgium, and links to other mathematical servers in Europe.
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 Bell Package  Jacek Kisynski
This package provides functions which are useful while dealing with set
partitions. We provide (hopefully) fast methods for sets of size up to 15
and methods with no set size restrictions which use BigInteger objects. The
later ones are constrained
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 Benchmarks for Optimization Software  Mittelmann, Spellucci
I: Several codes, one computer  linear and quadratic programming; quadratically constrained quadratic programming; geometric programming; boundconstrained nonlinear programming; nonlinear programming; largescale nonlinear system benchmark; benchmarks
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 Bending a Soccer BallMathematically  Michael Trott
With the World Cup under way, Michael Trott was asked by American Scientist magazine to help with some graphics to illustrate their feature article, "The Topology and Combinatorics of Soccer Balls," by Dieter Kotschick. Michael explains, "Using various
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 The Benefits of MixedAge Grouping (ERIC Digest)  Lilian G. Katz
"Goodlad and Anderson, who introduced the modern notion of the nongraded elementary school in 1959, raised our awareness of the fact that age is a crude indicator of what learning experiences children are ready for... The terms 'ungraded' and 'nongraded'
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 The Benezet Centre  Richard Hake & Sanjoy Mahajan
In 1929, Louis Benezet tried an experiment, "abandoning all formal instruction in arithmetic below the seventh grade and concentrating on teaching the children to read, to reason, and to recite." The experiment was successful; this site includes Benezet's
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 Benford's Law and Zipf's Law  Interactive Mathematics Miscellany and Puzzles, Alexander Bogomolny
With the eerie but uniform distribution of digits of randomly selected numbers, if the numbers under investigation are not entirely random but somehow socially or naturally related, the distribution of the first digit is not uniform. One may expect 1
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 BenfordWiz
Software that produces Benford numbers that obey Benford's Law. Hexagonal and octagonal numbers are also included in the data sets.
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 The Benjamin Banneker Association, Inc.
The Benjamin Banneker Association, Inc. is a nonprofit organization of individuals and groups concerned about the mathematics education of AfricanAmerican children. The goals of The Benjamin Banneker Association, Inc. are to serve as advocates for the
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 Benoit B. Mandelbrot  Computer Science Dept., Yale University
From the Yale University Computer Science Department's listing of Research and Academic Faculty. Prof. Mandelbrot joined the Yale faculty in 1987.
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 Benoit Fractal Analysis System  TriSoft International, Inc.
Windows fractal analysis software that enables you to measure the fractal dimension and/or Hurst exponent of data sets using a choice of method(s) for analysis of selfsimilar patterns and selfaffine traces. A white noise filter (Fourier or Wavelet)
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 ÜberFan  UberFan, LLC
"The fan's electronic baseball card," UberFan.com gives each fan ownership of Major League Baseball statistics by collecting them from the games he or she watches. Satisfy your curiosity for how many home runs you've seen your favorite batter hit, for
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 Bernhard Kutzler's Collection: Technology in Mathematics Education  Bernhard Kutzler
Read or download the author's articles: "Algebraic Calculators as Pedagogical Tools for Teaching Mathematics"; "Indispensable Manual Calculation Skills in a CAS Environment"; "TwoTier Exams as a Way to Let Technology in"; and "Interconnectivity  Derive
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 Bernoulli Society  Wilfrid Kendall
An autonomous section of the International Statistical Institute, based at Warwick University in England. Its object is the advancement of the sciences of probability (including the theory of stochastic processes) and mathematical statistics, and of their
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 Berrie's Statistics Page  Berrie Zielman
Statistical concepts illustrated using small QuickTime movies. Topics include: Interactive graph of the central limit theorem; normal approximation of the binomial distribution; Poisson distribution; Mean and Variance in the Normal Distribution; Graph
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 The Bertrand Russell Editorial Project  McMaster University
These archives, at McMaster University, house the complete papers of Bertrand Russell (18721970), British Philosopher, logician, essayist and renowned peace advocate. His Collected Papers include logical and philosophical works, Toward the "Principles
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 Bertrand: Symbolic Logic ProblemSolving Software  Larry Herzberg
Using a decomposition/instantiation algorithm inspired by the 'consistency tree' method found in Leblanc and Wisdom's textbook Deductive Logic, Bertrand solves sets of firstorder symbolic logic statements (subjectequality supported) for satisfiability
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 Bessel, Friedrich Wilhelm (Funk & Wagnalls Multimedia Encyclopedia)  Lycos Zone: Mathematics
A short biography of Friedrich Wilhelm Bessel (17841846), the German astronomer and mathematician, best known for making the first accurate measurement of the distance to a star.
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 Best Evidence Encyclopedia  Center for DataDriven Reform in Education
What mathematics programs have been proven to help students to succeed? The Best Evidence Encyclopedia (BEE) provides summaries of scientific reviews produced by many authors and organizations, as well as links to the full texts of each review. See ratings
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 Best Graphing Calculators  Dan Agostinelli
Reviews of TI's current graphing calculator models. The guide "TI Graphing Calculators in Exams" provides a tabular overview of the calculators allowed at the SAT, ACT, Advanced Placement (AP), PSAT/NMSQT, International Baccalaureate (IB), and Praxis
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 Best of the Web  Math
A directory listing of math sites on the web.
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 The Best Two Points in a Square (Math Chat)  Frank Morgan, MAA Online
Solution to the challenge: Where do you think you should you place two points in a unit square to minimize the average distance in the square to the nearest of the two points? Computer calculations by Al Zimmermann yield configurations of 211 points
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 BestWebQuests.com/  Tom March
Tom March has designed and assessed WebQuests since 1995. He presents these top ten choices on the subject of mathematics: For the Love of the Game; Franchise; A Creative Encounter of the Numerical Kind; The Dilemma of the Dangerous Meat Loaf; The King
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 BetaMaths Software  Anthony Healey
Free Windows Vista or XP times table software, also available in French. The author writes: Software to learn the times tables. You can set addition, subtraction, number bonds, multiplication and division exercises at home, with no worksheets to print
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 BetterExplained  Kalid Azad
Discover and share the "intuitive insights that make complicated ideas simple. Our 'ahha!' moments are different, and that's ok. There's no single way to explain an idea...." Preferring the construction of maps over the memorization of directions, the
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 The Better File Cabinet  Eric Hsu
A database of nonroutine calculus problems used in college workshops for Uri Treisman's Emerging Scholars Programs. It was originally a highly searchable database of calculus problems, comments and solutions. It will eventually will be a database crossreferencing
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 A Better Mathematics Curriculum  Tom Davis; Math Forum, Ask Dr. Math FAQ
What should we be teaching students today? Dr. Tom provides his take on what would make a better math curriculum.
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 Between Arithmetic and Algebra  Cut the Knot!, Alexander Bogomolny
What is the difference between the arithmetic 3+5 = 5+3 and the algebraic a+b = b+c? One is a specific fact, another is a pattern valid in a multitude of situations. While arithmetic may hint at some regularities, algebra, as a language, gives expression
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 Between Arithmetic and Algebra  Cut the Knot!, Alexander Bogomolny
What is the difference between the arithmetic 3 + 5 = 5 + 3 and the algebraic a + b = b + c? One is a specific fact, another is a pattern valid in a multitude of situations. While arithmetic may hint at some regularities, algebra, as a language, gives
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 Between the Folds  Corporation for Public Broadcasting
Exploring the science, art, creativity, and ingenuity of origami, Between the Folds chronicles the stories of ten leading paperfolders and their works of art. The game "Match the Folds" presents three finished works of origami alongside the fold pattern
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 Beyond Crossroads  The American Mathematical Association of TwoYear Colleges (AMATYC)
Mathematics education standards for the first two years of college. This site provides access to the individual chapters of the standards in HTML or PDF format. In addition there are links to resources that illustrate the ideas in the document.
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 Beyond Extra Large (and Ultra Small)  Ivars Peterson (MathTrek)
Metric prefixes come in handy for expressing both large and small quantities. So we have megawatt power systems and gigabyte hard drives at the high end, and we have nanoscale electronics and femtosecond lasers at the low end. Advances in scientific research
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 Beyond TERC  Linda Moran
Share constructive ideas with other parents and seek advice from Linda Moran, a licensed math teacher and author of the Beyond TERC lens and the Beyond TERC blog.
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 Beyond the Block: Tessellating Patterns  Linda Hampton Schiffer
An article about using tessellations in quilt design.
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 Beyond the Ellipse  Ivars Peterson (MathLand)
There's a simple trick one can use to draw an ellipse. Tie the ends of a length of string to two pins (or thumbtacks) stuck in a sheet of paper on a drawing board. Then, keeping the string taut with the point of a pencil, allow the pencil to trace a path
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 Beyond the IndividualSocial Antimony in Discussions of Piaget and Vygotsky  Cole, Wertsch
A discussion of the ongoing debate about the relation between the ideas of Vygotsky and Piaget, emphasizing a cardinal difference between them: their views concerning the importance of culture, in particular, the role of mediation of action through artifacts,
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 Beyond Traditional Math
Blog by a teacher who "was appalled to be handed a math book in which all instruction was whole group," and who subsequently "went on a mission to change and move beyond that traditional model of math in the elementary classroom." Subtitled "Fostering
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 BHOSLIB: Benchmarks with Hidden Optimum Solutions for Graph Problems  Ke Xu
Benchmark graphs for testing several NPhard graph algorithms: maximum clique, maximum independent set, minimum vertex cover and vertex coloring. All instances are expressed in DIMACS format and are planted with hidden optimum solutions.
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 Biased Rectangles?  Carol Hattan et al., Park City Mathematics Institute
This classroom activity, a PCMI Resource for
Teachers, is an adaptation of a lesson from the NCTM Navigating through Data
Analysis in Grades 912, chapter 1, to be used with Fathom© rather than a
graphing calculator. The original "100 rectangles"
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 The Bible Code That Wasn't  Keith Devlin (Devlin's Angle)
Just over a year ago, journalist Michael Dronin's book The Bible Code hit the bookstores  and soon after that the television screens and review pages of national newspapers  and quickly became an international bestseller. Both author and publisher made
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 Bibliographies on Typesetting  AlfChristian Achilles
Searchable bibliographies of scientific literature on typesetting (SGML, TeX, fonts, PostScript, electronic publishing, typography, font readability, etc.). The bibliographies are updated monthly from their original locations.
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 Bibliographies on Wavelets  Collection of Computer Science Bibliographies, University of Karlsruhe
Search interface for an extensive collection of bibliographies on wavelets.
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 Bibliography by Topic of the Mathematical Sciences in the Medieval Islamic World  Jeff Oaks
An online bibliography of medieval Islamic mathematicsover 1000 articles and books listed by topic. Restricted to works published since 1950 in western European languages. Reviews are also included. Mathematics in medieval times included more or less
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 Bibliography for Automorphic and Modular Forms, LFunctions, Representations, and Number Theory  Paul Garrett
A 1996 bibliography compiled for the author's Ph.D. students at the University of Minnesota.
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 Bibliography Index  MacTutor Math History Archives
About 700 books/articles on the History of Mathematics, some general works and some more specialised, intended to supplement the list of references attached to each biography or History topic in the MacTutor Math History archives. The items in the bibliography
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 A Bibliography of Bernoulli Numbers  Karl Dilcher
A bibliography of Bernoulli numbers by Karl Dilcher and Ilja Sh. Slavutskii. The Bernoulli numbers are among the most interesting and important number sequences in mathematics. They are particularly important in number theory, especially in
connection
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