 Constructivist Mathematics and Unicorns  Lee V. Stiff
The thenpresident of NCTM lays out distinctions among various forms of constructivism, and how they relate to the Principles and Standards, in this 2001 article.
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 A Constructivist View of Science Education  University of Massachusetts Physics Education Research Group (UMPERG)
Four premises of constructivism: knowledge is constructed, not transmitted; prior knowledge impacts the learning process; initial understanding is local, not global; and building useful knowledge structures requires effortful and purposeful activity;
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 Constructivist Views of Learning in Science and Mathematics (ERIC Digest)  Drew K. Ishii
An examination of constructivism and its implications for the classroom, with web and print resources for additional study.
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 Constructor  Soda
Constructor animates and edits twodimensional models made out of masses and springs. The springs can be controlled by a wave to make pulsing muscles, and you can construct models that bounce, roll, walk, etc. Try some of the readymade models or build
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 Conteúdos Digitais em Matemática para o Ensino Médio  Kaleff, Ana Maria; and Humberto José Bortolossi  Universidade Federal Fluminense
Educational Java applets and lesson plans in Portuguese. Topics include real functions, algebra, permutations, polygons, tangrams, conic sections, solids of revolution, and other two and threedimensional geometry, which includes the Englishlanguage
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 Contentbased Image Retrieval Project  Computer Science Department, Stanford University
Project group members; online demos; SIMPLIcity: Semanticssensitive Integrated Matching for Picture LIbraries; related links.
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 Content Knowledge: The McREL Standards Database  Midcontinent Regional Educational Laboratory (McREL)
A compendium of standards and benchmarks for K12 education. Browse or search the standards, which treat subject areas from math and science to language arts and physical education (e.g. Mathematics Standards.)
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 Contexts for Learning Mathematics  Catherine Fosnot
Heinemann's supplemental series uses "carefully crafted contexts" and mathematical "situations" as starting points to support learning through investigations.
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 Continental Mathematics League (CML)
Information about the Continental Math League, including samples and solutions from CMLs for grades two and three, Pythagorean for grades 49, Euclidean for grades 49, and calculus. Also, order Best of CML books containing questions, and obtain the competition's
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 Contingency Analysis  Glyn Holton
Information on financial risk management, including value at risk, derivative instruments, credit risk and financial engineering. Discussion groups of risk management professionals; fundamentals, with an overview of enterprise risk management; research
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 Continued Fractions and Chaos (Organic Mathematics Proceedings)  Robert M. Corless
From the Proceedings of the Organic Mathematics Workshop. This paper is meant for the reader who knows something about continued fractions, and wishes to know more about the theory of chaotic dynamical systems; it is also useful for the person who knows
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 Continued Fractions: an Introduction  Adam Van Tuyl
A brief introduction to the field of continued fractions, including some basic theory about the subject; the history of continued fractions, tracing some of the major developments in the field in the past 2500 years; some interactive applications that
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 Continued Fractions  David P. Stern
A short elementary exposition of continued fractions, without proofs. Students usually know that any number (e.g. pi) can be approximated to any desired accuracy by decimal fractions, but this method does the same using ordinary fractions. Examples include
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 Continued Fractions, Infinite Continued Fractions, and Iteration  Don Cohen, The Mathman
Ten different ways to solve a quadratic equation  an area of mathematics with applications to population increase, finding the square root of a number, chaos theory, and fractals. Sample problems from Chapter 8 (Solving Equations and Iteration) of Don
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 Continued Fractions With A Calculator (SMILE)  Fred J. Schaal, Lane Tech High School
A lesson designed to teach students how to evaluate continued fractions by taking many reciprocals with a calculator. From the Arithmetic section of a collection of almost 200 single concept lessons by the Science and Mathematics Initiative for Learning
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 Continuing Studies and Corporate Education  University of Massachusetts Lowell
The UMass Dartmouth and UMass Lowell Divisions of Continuing Education offer a selection of standard, fullcredit university courses offered over the web. Students and faculty use the World Wide Web, email, chat and other Internet resources to review
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 Continuous Everywhere but Differentiable Nowhere  Sameer Shah
Blog by a high school math teacher in Brooklyn (NY), beginning shortly before teacher training and orientation, upon realizing that the textbook "completely limits me as a teacher and as a creative person" and who subsequently sets out to "design clear,
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 Continuous Nowhere Differentiable Function  Michal Wojcik
A proof of the existence of a continuous function f:[0,1]>[0,1] that is nowhere differentiable. This proof uses the Banach Contraction Principle.
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 Contour plots with trigonometric functions  Eric Weeks
A method of making interesting nonmoiré patterns. See also his pages on Lissajou figures, Polar Flowers, and Spiral triangles.
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 Contradancing and Matrices  Ivars Peterson (MathLand)
Bernie Scanlon, a mathematics instructor at Bakersfield College in California, has been dancing nearly every weekend since 1990, even traveling to distant parts of the country to join in the fun. His passion is contradancing  a dance form unknown to
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 Contributions of 20th Century Women to Physics  Nina Byers; Department of Physics & Astronomy, University of California at Los Angeles
A searchable archive of data on 86 twentieth century women who have made original and important contributions to physics, including to the field of mathematical physics. Graphics include an annotated photo gallery and a poster montage of famous females
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 Conundrum Corner  UselessKnowledge.com
Math puzzles to solve, get the answers to, or send to friends. Also, Visual puzzles, Thinking puzzles, and other conundra.
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 Convergence  Mathematical Association of America (MAA)
An online magazine encouraging the use of mathematics history as a learning and teaching tool. Convergence will include: math history articles that have a special pedagogical or learning appeal; sharing of classroom experiences; animated mathematical
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 Conversation about A Beautiful Mind, with Sylvia Nasar and Dave Bayer  archived by the Commonwealth Club of California
A conversation with Sylvia Nasar (biographer of John Nash) and
Dave Bayer (math consultant on A Beautiful Mind). Streaming audio
of event sponsored by MSRI that took place May 2002.
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 Conversion Factors  Washington State Department of Transportation
Conversion tables between U.S. customary units and SI (International System) units. The proper conversion procedure is to multiply the specified value on the left (primarily U.S. customary values) by the conversion factor exactly as given below and then
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 Conversion Page  Keith Hooker
Convert to and from U.S. fluid/dry and metric measures: quarts, cups, teaspoons, gallons, fluid ounces, tablespoons, liters, milliliters; pounds, ounces, grams, kilograms.
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 Conversion Program  Lawrence Goetz
A page that uses JavaScript to convert temperature between Fahrenheit and Celsius, length among inches, centimeters, feet, yards, meters, miles, and kilometers; weight among grams, ounces, pounds, and kilograms; and volume among fluid ounces, cups, pints,
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 ConvertAuto.com  Lilly Hammond
JavaScript calclulators for instant online conversions: angles; area; cooking, such as teaspoons (tsp) and quarts (qts); foreign currencies; density; energy; force; frequency; fuel economy, such as miles per gallon (mpg); length; power; pressure; speed;
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 The Converter Site  Alastair Hazell
A user friendly metric and imperial converter tool. Converts length, area,
weight, speed, temperature, time, energy, force, length, mass, power and
currency.
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 Converting Celsius To Fahrenheit (SMILE)  Amaechi Onyeali, Carter Elementary School
A lesson designed to teach students to solve multiplestep equations involving addition, multiplication, and division; convert a known temperature in celsius to an equal temperature in fahrenheit; and accurately read a thermometer in degrees celsius.
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 Converting Fractions to, from Decimals  Math Forum, Ask Dr. Math Common Question
A selection of answers to questions about converting fractions to decimals and back, including how to convert repeating decimals to fractions.
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 Converting Inches to Miles  NASA Lewis Learning Technologies Project
The scale on a road map is 1 inch = 250 miles, how many inches would represent 1250 miles? A detailed answer is provided. From NASA's 9th Grade Math Proficiency Test.
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 Converting Tons to Pounds  NASA Lewis Learning Technologies Project
A loaded moving van weighs 5 tons. How many pounds would 10 loaded moving vans weigh? A detailed answer is provided. From NASA's 9th Grade Math Proficiency Test.
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 Convert It!  Micro Images Internet Services
Conversion tables: enter a number and convert from one unit to another: acceleration, area, energy/work, power, length, mass, metrology, pressure, temperature, volume, U.S. fluid/liquid, and velocity conversions are all possible.
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 Convertme.com  Mariya Voznesenskaya and Sergey Gershtein
Online converter of areas, capacities and volumes, circular measures, computer storage, currencies, distances and lengths, energy and work, fuel consumption, power, pressure, speed, temperatures, time, torque, weights and masses. Convertme.com offers
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 Convex and Discrete Geometry  Dave Rusin; The Mathematical Atlas
Information on convex and discrete geometry. Applications and related fields and subfields; textbooks, reference works, and tutorials; software and tables; other web sites with this focus.
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 Convex Hull Algorithms  Tim Lambert
An applet that demonstrates some algorithms for computing the convex hull of points in three dimensions. See the points from different viewpoints; see how the Incremental algorithm constructs the hull, face by face; while it's playing, look at it from
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 Cool Cosmos  Education and Public Outreach Group, Infrared Processing and Analysis Center and the SIRTF Science Center
To communicate the world of infrared astronomy to the public, the Cool Cosmos web site offers: classroom activities; infrared light lessons; infrared astronomy tutorial and timeline; multiwavelength astronomy; Ask an Astronomer; Cosmic Kids; image galleries,
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 coolmath.com: Cool Math  Karen
A searchable "amusement park of mathematics" for exploring math: functions, tessellations, polyhedra, limits, logs, fractals (with galleries), puzzles and problems, fun with numbers, how to succeed in math, careers in math. Also Cool Links for Math for
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 Cool Math Dudes  ThinkQuest 1996
Problems to explore, with solutions: Investment Inquiry; Circle Selections; The Beginning of Breanna; Matrices Mayhem; Breanna Returns.... With a Watch; Roots of Algebra; Breanna's Chess Companions; Squares of All Shapes and Sizes (well, not of all shapes);
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 Cool Math Guy  Dana Mosely
Watch math lessons delivered by a video instructor for several textbook publishers. Topics range from arithmetic to several variable calculus, and include review for the standardized tests such as the SAT and ACT. Also, play games that involve matching,
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 Cool Math Lessons  Ken Abbott
A blog of "simple ways to teach and think about mathematics." Posts, which date back to April, 2010, have covered zero, prime decomposition, fractions, functions, and creating mathematics.
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 Cool Math Sites  Nina Heal
A links list in the following categories: puzzles, algebra, geometry, calculus, discrete math, statistics and probability, trigonometry and precalculus, books and reference, calculators and other technology, data, history, other links sites and internetbased
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 COOL School  School districts of British Columbia, Canada
COOL School is a consortium of school districts in BC, Canada, which work together to develop quality online learning resources. An LOR (learning object repository) is available on site which includes a variety of math topics, from applications to Calculus.
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 Cool School Tools  Tim Fahlberg
Shockwave whiteboard movies on algebra, geometry, probability, statistics, the mathematics of finance, and more. A whiteboard movie (WM) is a multimedia screen recording of writing on an electronic whiteboard (real or virtual) with or without voice and/or
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 Coop City  Peter Barricelli
A classroom project involving the construction of scale models of buildings and towns. In addition to teaching ratio and proportion, the process introduces the students to blueprint and CAD (Computer Aided Design) programs.
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 Cooperative Learning  Classroom Compass
The fall 1994 issue of Classroom Compass looks at some aspects of cooperative learning and ways it can be implemented in the classroom. Two instructional activities, one providing suggestions for elementary students (Pumpkin Exploration) and one for higher
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 Cooperative Two Person Generalized (NonZero) Sum Game  Elmer G. Wiens; Egwald Web Services Ltd.
This article uses John Nash's theory to solve the "Battle of the Sexes" twoperson cooperative (bargaining) game. It discusses such key concepts as the negotiation set, threat strategies, the Nash function, the negotiated settlement, and the payoff tradeoff
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 Coordinates and similar figures  Mark Motyka, Math League Multimedia
Definitions and illustrations: What is a coordinate?; Similar figures; Congruent figures; Rotation; Reflection; Folding; Symmetric figure.
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 Coping With Math Anxiety  B. Sidney Smith, Wendy Hageman Smith; Math Academy Online/Platonic Realms
A "minitext" concerning the potentially disabling fear of math. This site defines math anxiety, discusses its social and educational roots, addresses some widespread myths about math and learning math, and deals with possible strategies for overcoming
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