 Children First: website of the National PTA  National ParentTeacher Association
News and information from the PTA, including its educational programs and materials, conferences, online subscriptions and discussion groups, legislative activities, and links to other childoriented sites.
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 Children's Shareware, Java Applets, Nature Wallpaper, and more  Lawrence Goetz
Shareware programs for kids, for Windows 3.1 and 95, including: Paddle Battle (a pong clone), Larry's Learning Math Machine (unregistered version has addition and subtraction; registered includes multiplication and division practice), Larry's Learning
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 Children's Software Revue
A magazine that features reviews of educational software. The website has a database of children's software that may be searched by title, rating, grade level, copyright date, publisher, platform, or the subject that it teaches. Reviews can be submitted
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 ChiliMATH  Michael Estela
Lessons and tutorials with worked examples, some handwritten: equations, inequalities, radicals, matrices, polynomials, functions, and more.
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 Chinese Mathematical Society
ICM2002 (International Congress of Mathematicians, Beijing, August 2028, 2002), Organization (Officers of the society), details about Chinese mathematicians, and publications (see Acta Mathematica Sinica.
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 Chinese Mathematics  MacTutor Math History Archives
Articles on mathematics in Chinese culture: An Overview of Chinese Mathematics; Nine Chapters on the Mathematical Art; The Ten Mathematical Classics; Chinese Numerals; and Chinese Problems. Also an alphabetical list of Chinese mathematicians, linked to
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 Chinese Numbers  Erik E. Peterson
Convert arabic numerals up to 1 billion into Chinese numbers, or show the value of a Chinese number (type or paste in a number in Chinese and click "Show English." With, in addition, A Brief Description of the Chinese Number System, and links to related
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 Chinese Remainder Theorem  Interactive Mathematics Miscellany and Puzzles, Alexander Bogomolny
An explanation and proof, using modular arithmetic, of the Chinese Remainder Theorem, which concerns problems of the following type: There are certain things whose number is unknown. Repeatedly divided by 3, the remainder is 2; by 5 the remainder is 3;
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 Chinks in Digital Armor  Ivars Peterson  Science News Online
Tampering with a smart card can force it into making errors in the calculations used for encrypting data, potentially allowing the code to be broken.
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 Chinook (champion checkers computer program)  Jonathan Schaeffer, Dept. of Computing Science, Univ. of Alberta
Chinook is the World ManMachine Checkers Champion, a title it earned by competing in human tournaments and defeating the best players in the world.
Chinook is the byproduct of a research effort started in 1989 into gameplaying strategies. The longterm
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 Chips A Tally  Bayonne, NJ Board of Education  5th Grade Teachers
A collaborative math project to determine whether the number of chocolate chips in Chips Ahoy cookies is the same everywhere. Classes may submit data, and results will be posted November 30, 2000. Site includes: lesson plans that use statistics to analyze
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 ChisenBop (or Chisanbop)  Andrew Harris, Computer Science, Indiana & Purdue Universities
An ancient technique from Korea, similar to the abacus or soroban: using your fingers as an analog computer, illustrated and with Real streaming media lessons. Background; simple counting; simple adding and subtracting; adding "around the corner"; subtraction
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 ChiSquare (MSTE)  Amar Patel; University of Illinois at UrbanaChampaign (UIUC)
This lesson illustrated using cartoon characters explains statistical terms such as expectation, significance, and chisquare. The lesson requires Excel and is based on Ch. 6 of Using Statistics, by Travers, Stout, Swift, and Sextro. Analyzing records
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 Chris Fenwick's mathematics education (selforganised readingtolearn) research and teaching page  Chris Fenwick
Research material on mathematics education, from the perspective of a teacher of Alevel mathematics students.
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 Christianity and the Mathematical Sciences  the Heliocentric Hypothesis  MacTutor Math History Archives
Linked essay on Christianity's influence on the mathematical sciences. With references and other related web sites.
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 Christmas With The Polyiamonds Puzzle Family  Jos H. Hindriks
Polyiamonds share their general principles with Pentominoes, except that their basic 'cell' is the sixtydegree triangle instead of the square. The term 'Polyiamonds', derived from the word 'diamond', was introduced in 1961 by T.H. O'Beirne. Hexiamonds,
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 Chron Me! Online Stopwatch
Easily record time in increments, whenever you have a multipart task to time. Press start; press stop; add a label for that segment; repeat as needed; download the resulting comma or semicolonseparated file to your computer, or open it with Excel.
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 Chronological Age Calculator  AGS Publishing
Click the "Age Calculator" button, then enter two calendar dates to compute elapsed years, months, and days. Available for download.
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 A Chronology of Mathematicians  MacTutor Math History Archives
A chronology of mathematicians between the dates stated, showing how the lives of
the mathematicians overlap: 700 BC700 AD; 7001650; 16251775; 17501850; 18251900; 18751957. Where either the birth or death of a mathematician is unknown (mostly for
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 A chronology of pi  MacTutor Math History Archives
Precomputer calculations of pi, from the Rhind papyrus through Ferguson (1946); computer calculations from Ferguson (1947) through Kanada, Takahashi (Sept 1999). With references and other related web sites.
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 Chronology of Recreational Mathematics  Mario Velucchi
David Singmaster's list of events from circa 2700BC to 1993, with references, includes how in Greek mythology, Palamedes was the inventor of dice; in 1392, three packs of cards were made for Charles VI of France; in 1605, Cervantes' Don Quixote gives
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 CIESEmath Project  Stevens Institute for Technology Center for Improved Engineering and Science Education
Outlines of ten units of Everyday Math and thirteen chapters of Transition Math, some with links to relevant Java applets and Geometer's Sketchpad sketches. The list of activities links to more interactive math tools, instructions, and handouts. A joint
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 CIESE Online Classroom Projects  Stevens Institute of Technology
Projects that use realtime data available from the Internet, and collaborative projects that use the Internet's potential to reach peers and experts around the world. The site lists currently sponsored projects by level, with an archive of past sponsored
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 Cinderella: Interactive Geometry Software  RichterGebert, Kortenkamp
A fullfeatured interactive geometry program in German that uses Java as the programming language and includes a true symbolic theorem prover. A demo version that will run for 15 minutes at a time may be downloaded from the Web; the site also includes
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 Cipher Challenge  University of Southampton
A cipher challenge for cryptographers under the age of 19. With solutions and comments about the breaking of sets of encoded messages, or ciphertexts, of increasing difficulties.
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 Circle Drawing Experiment  Thomas Denney
Draw a figure on the grid by clicking and dragging. Upon release of the mouse button, this JavaScript calculates a "perfect circle" accuracy score by using the sketch's perimeter as the circumference of a perfect circle, and comparing its area to the
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 Circle Formulas (Ask Dr. Math FAQ)  Math Forum
Formulas for finding the area, perimeter, arc, segment, or sector of a circle.
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 Circle Formulas  Math Forum, Ask Dr. Math Common Question
A selection of answers to questions about circle formulas, including how to find their circumferences and areas.
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 Circle Graph  What Percent?  NASA Lewis Learning Technologies Project
This circle graph shows how Jimmy spent his time during the last 24 hours. What percent of time did he spend watching television? A detailed answer is provided. From NASA's 9th Grade Math Proficiency Test.
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 Circles  360 Degrees  Math Forum, Ask Dr. Math Common Question
A selection of answers to questions about why a circle has 360 degrees, and the origin of that degree measurement.
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 Circles and Spheres (The Geometry Junkyard)  David Eppstein, Theory Group, ICS, UC Irvine
An extensive annotated list of links to material on circles and spheres.
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 Circle Scribe Disk Compass  Bill Harper
A new instrument for manually exploring shape and space, used to draw diagrams on paper, from cartoon characters to limacons, as well as standard geometric constructions. Unlike toys like spirograph, the Circle Scribe Disk Compass requires some geometrical
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 Circles  Diameter, Circumference, Radius and the Discovery of Pi (SMILE)  Kathleen Ryan, Randolph Magnet School
A 7th grade lesson designed to help students identify and measure the diameter, circumference, and radius of a circle. The students discover the approximate value of pi through the relation between the diameter and circumference. From the Geometry and
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 Circles in Geometry  Lesson Ideas: Math: Geometry; Teachnet.Com
Wholeclass and group activities for teaching circle concepts, pi, circumference, etc.
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 Circles in the Sky  Ivars Peterson; Science News Online
Detecting the shape of the universe: evidence of a finite, multiply connected universe may show up in microwave data from future spacecraft.
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 Circles of Dissonance  Ivars Peterson (MathTrek)
Much of today's music rests upon ancient tradition going back thousands of years to the time of the Greek mathematician and mystic Pythagoras. The Pythagoreans observed that tones an octave apart are pleasing to the ear. In modern terms,
one can say
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 Circles of Light: The Mathematics of Rainbows  Frederick J. Wicklin, Paul Edelman; The Geometry Center
How are rainbows formed? Why do they only occur when the sun is behind the observer? If the sun is low on the horizon, at what angle in the sky should we expect to see a rainbow? This lab helps to answer these and other questions by examining a mathematical
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 Circles of Light: The Mathematics of Rainbows  Steven Janke; The Geometry Center
How are rainbows formed? Why do they only occur when the sun is behind the observer? If the sun is low on the horizon, at what angle in the sky should we expect to see a rainbow? This lab helps to answer these and other questions by examining a mathematical
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 Circle Zap  Michael Bulmer
A Java applet that gathers data on your ability to use a mouse rapidly and accurately, with suggested questions for classroom activities.
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 Circular Reasoning  TJ Leone, Leone Learning Systems, Inc.
A free, Javabased software tool for thinking about circles, sectors, segments, and angles. Based on Montessori principles of learning through the manipulation of objects. Activity cards included. For Windows computers only. Includes ideas and stories
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 Circumference of an Ellipse (Ask Dr. Math FAQ)  Math Forum
A discussion of the derivation of the formula for the circumference of an ellipse. Also discussions of the evaluation of the formula, and approximating the circumference.
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 Circumferences, Diameters, and Radii (SMILE)  Dwayne Belle, Fuller School
A lesson designed to teach students to measure circumferences in inches, and compute radii and diameters, given different circumferences. From the Geometry and Measurement section of a collection of almost 200 single concept lessons by the Science and
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 The Civilization of the Mayans  ThinkQuest 1997
Essentially a school paper in web format, covering, briefly, Mayan art, astronomy, ballgame, books and hieroglyphics, class system, and number system, with rated related Mayan links and references, and an abouttheauthors section.
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 CK12
Providers of free, standardsaligned, open content in the STEM subjects. See, in particular, the CK12 Foundation's flexbooks: customizable, free, curriculumaligned K12 math textbooks. In addition to dozens of student editions, some math flexbooks feature
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 ClarisWorks Graphing: Spreadsheet Lessons  Suzanne Alejandre
Stepbystep directions for using ClarisWorks spreadsheets, helpful in exploring the differences between exponential functions and linear functions. Bar graphs, pie charts, pictograms, and other graphs for linear, polynomial, and exponential functions.
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 Clash of the Chess Titans  Keith Devlin (Devlin's Angle)
Thoughts on the KasparovDeep Blue match of 3 May 1997. Throughout history, people have been building machines that can perform tasks better than humans. When Kasparov, referring to his upcoming match, talks about "an area that defines human beings,"
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 Class2Class  Melanie Sprouse
Class2Class is a clearinghouse designed to facilitate student and class participation in Internet projects, including collaborative projects, datacollecting experiments, peer tutoring, and keypal exchanges designed to enhance the mathematics in your
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 Class Champ multiplication & division
Software intended to help children learn the times table by heart using Pop Times Table songs; show how multiplication works by displaying the question graphically; and quicken the child's ability to recall answers and allow the child to practice questions.
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 class.com  Class.com, Inc
Class.com provides distance education over the Internet, and offers a complete high school diploma from a fully accredited, universitybased independent study high school. Math course listings include a math skill review, basic mathematics, beginning
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 Classes With Web Resources  University of Illinois at UrbanaChampaign (UIUC)
A list of University of Illinois hypertext courses that are using the Web to augment traditional instructional materials, covering, among other topics, Civil Engineering, Computer Science, and Mathematics. Follow the links to read the course descriptions
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