 OPenn  University of Pennsylvania Libraries
Highresolution archival images of manuscripts from the University of Pennsylvania Libraries and other institutions, along with machinereadable descriptions and technical metadata. Digitized cultural heritage materials on mathematics include "Treatise
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 Open Problem Garden  Matt DeVos and Robert Šámal
A collection of unsolved problems  mainly, graph theory, combinatorics, and number theory. A wiki for each open problem includes relevant bibliographical citations, importance rating, and recommendation for undergraduates. Navigate by math subject,
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 Open Problems for Undergraduates (DIMACS)  Robert Hochberg, Center for Discrete Mathematics and Theoretical Computer Science, Rutgers Univ.
A collection of open problems in Discrete Mathematics in the areas of Graph Theory; Combinatorial Geometry; Geometry/Number theory; and Venn Diagrams, currently being researched by members of the DIMACS community. These problems are easily stated, require
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 Open Problems in Dynamical Systems  Dept. of Mathematics, State Univ. of New York at Stony Brook
A collection of papers outlining unsolved problems in dynamical systems.
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 Open Problems in Dynamical Systems & Ergodic Theory  Sergiy Kolyada
This collection of problems originated in the Katsiveli2000 Open Problems Session (Chairman  Benjamin Weiss). New problems are being added. Copies of the page are also at http://iml.univmrs.fr:80/~kolyada/opds/ and http://www.math.iupui.edu/~mmisiure/open/.
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 Open Problems  Jeff Erickson
Open problems, mostly in geometry, including folding, combinatorial, and algorithmic problems. Contents include: Existence Problems: Does Object X exist?
Combinatorial Problems: How complex is Object X? Algorithmic Problems: How fast can Problem X be
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 Open Problems (The Geometry Junkyard)  David Eppstein, Theory Group, ICS, UC Irvine
An extensive annotated list of links to material on open problems in geometry: antipodes; bounded degree triangulation; centers of maximum matchings; chromatic number of the plane; combinatorial complexity of spheres; covering points by rectangles; cube
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 Open Source Mathematics  David Joyner
An index of open source math software, texts, and papers.
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 OpenStat4 (OS4)  Bill Miller
A statistics package offering descriptive statistics such as central tendency and variability indexes, xy plots, and frequency distributions; Pearson productmoment correlations and partial correlations; analyses of variance including 1, 2 and 3way
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 Opera Mathematica  Elsevier BV
François Viète's collected works, digitized by Elsevier, show how mathematicians used their books in the past: by writing directly on them as they worked through their questions. Viète, an innovator in the standardization of algebra,
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 Operational Research Society
Operational Research (OR) or Operations Research or Management Science (OR/MS) looks at an organisation's operations and uses mathematical or computer models, or other analytical approaches, to find better ways of doing them. The OR Society, with members
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 The Operational Research Society  the Operational Research Society
The Operational Research Society, with members in many countries, provides training, conferences, publications and information to those working in Operational Research. Shop for books, training courses, conferences and one day events; learn about OR (publicity
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 Operations Research  Elmer G. Wiens; Egwald Web Services Ltd.
Operations research  game theory and linear programming: an online linear programming solver; and an online solver of twoperson zero sum games (play a twoperson zero sum game online).
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 Operations Research  J. E. Beasley
ORNotes are a series of introductory notes on topics that fall under the broad heading of the field of operations research (OR). Beasley includes practice questions ("tutorials"), links to other web resources, and past exams.
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 Operations Research Society of the Philippines
Activities, officers and members, the ORSPCorps, and links to related OR sites.
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 Operator Algebra Resources  N. Christopher Phillips
Lists of some resources useful to mathematicians working in the subject of operator algebras. General operator algebra sites and publications, information on regular series of conferences, and some important general mathematical resources.
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 OpsResearch  DRA Systems
A collection of Java classes for developing operations research programs and other mathematical applications. The site includes documentation and tutorials, and software download is free. Also features a bookstore and related links.
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 Optical Illusions (SandlotScience.com)  SandlotScience
Interactive explorations of optical effects, illusions, distortions, animations, artwork, stories, PDF projects, games, and more. Impossible objects include columns, an endless staircase and animated stairs, Java triangle models, an interlaced tribar,
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 Optics2001
Online optical library with links to papers, theses, and articles on optics for beginner level to researchers. Contents include: General Optics; Optical Detectors; Optical Fibers; Image Processing; Design Techniques; Optical Elements; Optical Instruments;
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 OpticsNotes.com  NIXAR
An index of optics and photonics tutorials, references, and resources. Fundamentals, Design, Components, Manufacture, Applications, References, Industry. Books, software, dictionary, formulas, industry directories, journals, materials, newsgroups, patents,
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 Optimal Control Theory with Applications  Elmer G. Wiens; Egwald Web Services Ltd.
Interactive Models: Applications of Optimal Control Theory using the Pontryagin Maximum Principle. Solve the rocket car, missile intercept, and harmonic oscillator (linearized pendulum) problems online. Learn how the control and adjoint (costate) variables
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 Optimalcut Web Software
Fee JavaScript optimization solver for cutting stock and bin packing problems. Specify pieces and rolls to linearly cut rectangles out of bars, pipes, tubes, metal profiles, extrusions, linear wood boards, and more (1D cutting); or sheets made of glass,
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 Optimalon Software  Denis Smirnov, Optimalon Software
Developing software for general linear programming tasks arising in educational, research and production areas. Includes an introduction to linear programming problems in the links section.
Products: GIPALS is a linear programming environment that combines
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 OptimalView  Sheela Belur
A Windows standalone program for minimizing a function by the simplex method
of Nelder and Mead. The trial software is twodimensional.
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 Optimization Links  Tom Cavalier; Industrial and Manufacturing Engineering, Penn State Univ.
Links to online information on various aspects of optimization; interactive guides/case studies; optimization software/test problems; and other sites. Also general operations research sites; OR/Optimization people. Location/Routing/ Conference Information;
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 Optimization Technology Center  Argonne National Laboratory and Northwestern University
A research center dedicated to optimization problems. The "optimization tree," with descriptions of the different subfields of numerical optimization; interactive demonstrations and case studies, including the diet problem and minimum surface area; linear
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 Optique & Cabri  Charrier et Cortial
A collection of classic diagrams created using Cabri Géometre, reworked in Paint Shop Pro, and some have animated GIFs. Optique Géométrique (reflections and mirrors, refractions and diopters, thin lenses, optical instruments); Optique
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 OptNet  Michael Jünger; SIGOPT, Deutsche Mathematiker Vereinigung (DMV)
An electronic forum for the optimization community organized by SIGOPT under the auspices of the Deutsche Mathematiker Vereinigung (DMV). The basic services are a weekly digest containing a moderated list of contributions, a unique email address and
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 Orbifold Pinball  Yevgeniy Dodis; The Geometry Center
A game in which you roll a ball on an unusual playing field. The game board is like ordinary pinball in that it features 'bumpers' off which the ball can bounce. But in this game, the board is 'curved' in such a way that a ball barely missing the bumper
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 The Orbifold Shop (Geometry and the Imagination)  Conway, Doyle, Gilman, Thurston; The Geometry Center
A symmetry project: the Orbifold Shop offers a free coupon for $2.00 worth of parts, installation included, to anyone acquiring a new orbifold. There are only a few kinds of features for twodimensional orbifolds, but they can be used in combinations:
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 Orbit Research
Developers and manufacturers of Orion Talking Scientific calculators the TI84 Plus and the TI36X, the iBill Talking Banknote Identifier, and other "products that enable an independent lifestyle for the physically challenged"  the visually impaired
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 Orbits and Gravitation  MacTutor Math History Archives
A hypertext essay covering Copernicus through Poincaré, LeviCivita, and Birkhoff, with References.
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 Order  Kluwer Online
A journal on the theory of ordered sets and its applications. Order occurs throughout mathematics and especially in algebra, combinatorics, geometry, model theory, set theory and topology.
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 Ordinary Differential Equations for Reliability, Maintainability and Availability  Harry A. Watson; Math Forum
A public domain textbook on ordinary differential equations, freely available online, by Harry A. Watson, a mathematician with the U.S. Naval Warfare Assessment Station. The entire document is available in DVI and TEX format on the Math Forum server;
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 Ordinary Differential Equations Project  Blanchard, Devaney, Hall; Boston University
This project included the development of a textbook (publisher Brooks/Cole Publishing Co.) as well as various workshops on teaching differential equations. Instructors manuals and selected articles are available from this site: "Teaching Differential
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 O'Reilly  O'Reilly & Associates, Inc.
Computer books, software, and online publishing. Search the O'Reilly catalogue for concepts and keywords having to do with mathematics. Bookstores, conferences, software, how to order, contacts, affiliated companies.
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 The Organic Mathematics Project  Centre for Experimental and Constructive Mathematics (CECM)
A collaborative research project involving a number of researchers at the Centre for Experimental and Constructive Mathematics (CECM). Involves in part the development of WWWbased and Mapleassisted tools for document annotation and math activation.
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 Organic Mathematics Workshop: The Proceedings  Borwein, Borwein, Corless, Jörgenson, Sinclair, eds.
Proceedings of a 1996 workshop held at Simon Fraser University, Vancouver, Canada. Speakers (top experimental and computational mathematicians); their articles, with equations, code, photos, videos, and annotations; and related resources and links. Invited
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 Orig4mi  Jorge C. Lucero
Origami na ciência, tecnologia e design. Desde outubro, 2008, este profesor da Universidade de Brasília tem escrito neste blog artigos diversos sobre origami, inclusive abrigos dobráveis de bambu, origami com moléculas de DNA,
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 Origami Mathematics  Tom Hull
Information on origami and the mathematics of paper folding. With an origami math bibliography and pictures and tutorials in origami geometric construction, as well as links to other origami sites and events.
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 Origami Page  Joseph Wu
Origami is the art of paper folding. The word is Japanese, literally meaning "to fold" (oru) "paper" (kami). Links to photo galleries, information on origami, files and diagrams, other origami home pages, and areas related to origami (A paper on Molecular
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 Origami (The Geometry Junkyard)  David Eppstein, Theory Group, ICS, UC Irvine
An extensive annotated list of links to material on the Japanese art of paper folding, obviously geometrical in nature. Some origami masters have looked at constructing geometric figures such as regular polyhedra from paper. In the other
direction, some
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 Original Lesson Plans  Mathematics  Thirteen/WNET New York
Original Webbased activities developed by Thirteen Ed Online Master Teachers. Each lesson consists of an overview with learning objectives, procedures for teachers, and "organizers" for students  handouts, bibliographies, and other materials. Math
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 Orlando Sessions: Math Education Reform  Math Forum
The 1996 Joint Mathematics Meetings in Orlando, Florida featured presentations on math education reform.
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 Orlando Sessions on Interdisciplinary Math
The 1996 Joint Mathematics Meetings in Orlando, Florida featured presentations on interdisciplinary programs.
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 Orlando Sessions on PreService Teacher Ed  Math Forum
The 1996 Joint Mathematics Meetings in Orlando, Florida featured presentations on "Creating an Active Learning Environment  Preparing PreService
Teachers."
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 ORLibrary  J. E. Beasley; Imperial College of Science, Medicine and Technology
A collection of test data sets for a variety of Operations Research (OR) problems, available via emailing to o.rlibrary@ic.ac.uk a message containing the name of the required file, or via FTP/WWW using the links provided. Also at http://mscmga.ms.ic.ac.uk/info.html.
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 OR/MS Today
Online version of the magazine for members of the Institute for Operations Research and the Management Sciences (INFORMS). Current and previous issues, with full text of many articles; subscription information; software surveys; classified ads and list
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 ORNotes  J. E. Beasley
Introductory originally used in an introductory OR course at Imperial College. Topics: Introductory (basic concepts); Deterministic (data envelopment analysis, facility layout and location, graph theory, integer programming, inventory control, justintime,
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 Orthocenter  Paul Kunkel
What is significant about the orthocenter of a triangle? Why does it even have a name? This investigation was prepared for a geometry teachers' workshop. It includes a lesson handout in Word format and was written for use in a computer lab with the Geometer's
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