 Fred Rickey's History of Mathematics Page  Fred Rickey, Department of Mathematical Sciences, United States Military Academy
Information about courses Rickey and others have taught about the history of mathematics. Historical notes for calculus teachers cover Torricelli's trumpet,
Clepsydra, the history of the brachistochrone, the bridge and the catenary, Cauchy's famous wrong
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 Free College Algebra and Trigonometry Notes  Michael Sakowski
These notes are in PDF and MS Word form. For the algebra notes, you may edit the MS Word form to your liking and then print to a PDF file. The trigonometry notes are in PDF format only.
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 Free Complex Matrix and Vector classes  Abdon Pijpelink
Two C++ classes: implementations of a matrix and a vector of complex numbers. Free for everyone.
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 Free Doughnuts  Web Feats Workshop II
You have a piece of cardboard 24 by 15 inches. Your problem is to figure out how much to cut out of each corner to make the box with the biggest (maximum) volume. Use the applet to explore how changing the size of the cutout changes the box. This workshop
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 Freely Available Software for the Solution of Linear Algebra Problems  Jack Dongarra
Software for highperformance computers, available in source form for problems in numerical linear algebra, specifically dense, sparse direct and iterative systems and sparse iterative eigenvalue problems.
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 Free Mathematics Books  FreeTechBooks.com
Links to free mathematics books and lecture notes. Mostly in PDF and Postscript format.
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 freemathtexts.org  Alain Schremmer
Original texts that emphasize a very few but very powerful ideas; appeal to common sense and make no assumption of any kind about the students; and focus on helping readers convince themselves about mathematics. Written for use in developmental mathematics
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 Free Online Books  PSPXWorld.com
Free books for download or viewing online, in computer science and mathematics.
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 Free Online College Courses: Mathematics  OnlineSchools
Open math courseware from Johns Hopkins University; Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT); The Open University; the University of California, Irvine; University of Notre Dame; and other institutions. Refine course listings by math subjects: algebra,
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 FreeScience.info  Claudio Attaccalite
Mathematics section of a site providing free scientific books, mostly in PDF format.
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 Free Software which You Can Download  Will Naylor
Download WNLIB, an ANSCIIC subroutine library which includes numerical routines, data structures, random number generators, and more.
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 Frequently Asked Questions in Business Statistics  Jian Chen
Why should I study business statistics? Why is an average calculated? Why is a standard deviation calculated? Why are histograms calculated? Why are we concerned with samples and sampling in data analysis? Why calculate a correlation coefficient? Why
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 Frequently Asked Questions in Management Science or Operations Research  Jian Chen
Why should I study Management Science or Operations Research? Why should a business decision maker study Decision Theory? What is Bayesian Decision Theory? Why study Linear Programming? Why study Queuing Theory? What is computer simulation? What is Inventory
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 Frequently Asked Questions in Mathematics  Alex LópezOrtiz and the Sci.Math FAQ Team
The sci.math FAQ. Nontrivial mathematical trivia from the newsgroup sci.math: a compilation of math history and knowledge of interest to most professional and amateur mathematicians, ranging from advanced topics such as Wiles' proposed proof to Fermat's
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 Friedman Numbers  Erich Friedman
A Friedman number is a number that can be written in some nontrivial way using its digits, the operations +  * / ^ and concatenation of digits. For example, 25 and 126 are Friedman numbers, since 25 = 5^2, and 126 = 6 * 21. Page includes a list of all
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 FRISCO  A Framework for Integrated Symbolic/Numeric Computation  The Numerical Algorithms Group Ltd, Oxford UK
A threeyear project funded by the European Commission under the Esprit Reactive LTR Scheme, its aim to develop highly efficient, versatile polynomial solvers for industrial users. Much of the software produced during the project is available for download,
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 Fritz Dooley's Mancala Center  Fritz Dooley
Game theory analysis of the board game Mancala, written as a research paper for Harvard Business School.
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 From Chaos: Beauty  Kitara
Fractal galleries created using UltraFractal.
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 From Constructivism to Active Learning  Siegfried M. Holzer
Summary of an essay defining constructivism and outlining its implications for education: active learning, authentic activities, students' views, authentic assessment, and innovative curriculum. Published in the hypermedia publication of SUCCEED: The
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 From Counting to Writing  Ivars Peterson (MathLand)
Abstract numbers are the product of a long cultural evolution. They also apparently played a crucial role in the development of writing in the Middle East. Indeed, numbers came before letters, contends archaeologist Denise SchmandtBesserat of the University
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 From Linear to Nonlinear Optimization: The Missing Chapter  Prof. Hossein Arsham; University of Baltimore
This presentation in the form of a research paper provides a general solution algorithm for a large class of problems with linear constraints and a continuous objective function. A hypertext companion site for Applied Management Science: Making Good Decisions.
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 From Now On
A Monthly Electronic Commentary on Educational Technology Issues. Previous issues archived by theme and date; since 1991.
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 From Number to Formula  Ivars Peterson (MathLand)
Given the number 1.6180339887, how can you find out whether this particular number is special in some way, as the output of a specific formula or the value of a familiar mathematical function? Do you have a favorite number: Pi, the golden ratio, e (Napier's
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 From Polychords to Polya: Adventures in Musical Combinatorics  Mike Keith
A book that explores the various connections between the basic musical building blocks  chords, scales, and rhythms  and the area of mathematics known as combinatorics, which is concerned with counting and classifying configurations of objects. Questions
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 From Starting Line to Ancient Angle  Ivars Peterson (MathTrek)
The ruins of ancient Corinth include a stadium that featured several courses for foot races. In 1980, archaeologists found and excavated the curved starting line for one such racecourse, dating from about 500 B.C. Curved to allow a staggered start, the
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 Front for the Mathematics ArXiv  Univ. of California, Davis
U.C. Davis front end for the xxx.lanl.gov ePrint archive, a major site for mathematics preprints that has incorporated many formerly independent specialist archives including alggeom, functan, dgga, qalg, autofms, cdhg, MAGNUS, Several Complex
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 FroZenLight  Zoltan Palmer
Interrelating line arts, mathematics, and cryptography, this free Java application simulates experiments in classic optics. Use FroZenLight to see how beaming a light ray onto circular mirrors would produce reflection patterns ranging from the symmetric
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 Frustration Solitaire  Doyle, Grinstead, Snell
A paper on the rankderangement problem, which asks for the number of permutations of a deck of cards such that each card is replaced by a card of a different rank, and which arises when computing the probability of winning the game of 'frustration solitaire'.
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 FTL
An online magazine with articles about space, science, and science fiction. Features include a series of humorous articles by Ian Stewart, with topics ranging from lattice polyhedra (and conceptual art) to Diophantine equations (and camels).
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 FullText Electronic Journals  TriUniversity Group of Libraries, Ontario, Canada
A collection useful for browsing the contents of a particular journal and for locating a specific article given the article citation (article title, author, journal title, volume, date published). (You cannot search by subject, so if you do not have
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 Fun and Games in Nevada  Ivars Peterson (Mathland)
...in the hotel's casino, the sights and sounds were... the glare of neon lights, the jangle of coins erupting from slot machines, the clink of chips at blackjack tables, and the mutter of avid gamblers testing their luck. It was the middle of April,
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 Functional Analysis  Dave Rusin; The Mathematical Atlas
A short article designed to provide an introduction to functional analysis, which views the big picture in differential equations, for example, thinking of a
differential operator as a linear map on a large set of functions. Thus this area becomes the
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 A Functional Housing Market  Susan Boone
Students use the Internet to search for housing prices in Houston, Texas, (the location can be changed to accommodate any location) and compare the prices to the number of square feet found in the living area of a house. A linear equation is derived from
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 Function Basics  David Eger; Interactive Mathematics Online (IMO)
Functions are mathematical ideas that take one or more variables and produce a variable. In an abstract mathematical sense, a function is a mapping of some domain onto some range. For each item in the domain, there is a corresponding item in the range
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 Functions of a Complex Variable  Dave Rusin; The Mathematical Atlas
A short article designed to provide an introduction to complex variables, studying the effect of assuming differentiability of functions defined on complex
numbers. The effect is markedly different than for real functions; these functions are much more
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 Function Squashing  David Eger; Interactive Mathematics Online (IMO)
Exploring things you can do with periodic functions like sine and cosine; translation, and vertical and horizontal scaling.
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 Functor  Jordan Touzsouzov  Mordred
Math software for the graphical analysis and display of one and twoargument functions z = f(x, y), using OpenGL. A beta version is available for Win95/98 and WinNT.
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 Fundamentals of Geometry  Oleg A. Belyaev
A work in progress to create a free online book on geometryfrom exposition of elementary absolute geometry based on Hilbert's axioms to more advanced topics. The site contains a current draft of the book. This text is also intended to provide math background
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 The Fundamental Theorem of Algebra  B. Fine, Fairfield Univ., CT; G. Rosenberger, Univ. of Dortmund, Germany
The Fundamental Theorem of Algebra states that any complex polynomial must have a complex root. This basic result, whose first accepted proof was given by Gauss, lies at the intersection of the theory of numbers and the theory of equations, and arises
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 The Fundamental Theorem of Algebra  MacTutor Math History Archives
Linked essay covering from Cardan in the 1500's to the Euler and Argand proofs through the 1800's, with 8 references (books/articles).
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 The Fundamental Theorem of Projective Geometry  Maska Law; Dept. of Mathematics, University of Western Australia
A brief definition of projective geometry, by the author of an honours dissertation covering ideas from the areas of projective geometry and group theory.
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 Funforms: a New Math Learning System  Joel S. Steinberg
An abacus or sliderulelike notation system, essentially binary (though a trinary system also exists). The web site includes a description of how to use it, and suggests that it might be taught to preschoolers as a game, or used to teach math concepts
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 The FUNKtion  Appreciating Math through Art  ThinkQuest 1996
How to do really hard graphic stuff. Tilings, Fractals, Sierpinski Gaskets, animations, pictures, links. Math "crash courses" on Complex Numbers; Magnitude and the Pythagorean Theorum; Functions; and 3D.
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 Fun, Puzzles, Travel  Paul Bourke
Brain twisters, arranged by approximate level, and designed for the most part to require no particularly advanced mathematical skills. Illusions include impossible triangle, MullerLyer, bad box, and Colours.
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 Fun with Cellular Automata  Mathilde Rufenacht
Java applets such as "pattern calculators" for exploring onedimensional cellular automata, Conway's game of life, and the skins and furs of animals. Also, use the site to run your own screen savers.
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 Fun with Fractals  Keith Gabryelski
Click in the fractal image to select the area of the fractal you would like to examine; select a location and style for the fractal image by modifing the values in the form.
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 Fun With Num3ers
A blog of mathematical puzzles, mostly in number theory. Posts, which date back to January, 2012, have included "Using digits 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8 and 9 only once (Part Two)," "Pythagorean triple – Digits Reversed," "Concatenation puzzle: when (A 
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 Furman University Wylie Mathematics Tournament  Furman University, Greenville, South Carolina
A page with links to annual Furman University mathematics tournament exams for 19961999, and to postscript or PDF files of Senior and Junior Written Problems, with answer sheets. The date of the 2000 Furman University Wylie Mathematics Tournament is
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 Futility Closet  Greg Ross
"An idler's miscellany of compendious amusements." Math posts, which date back to January, 2005, have included puzzles, curios, and trivia from the lives of famous mathematicians  all "selfcontained and written as concisely as possible"  such as
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 Future of Leap Seconds  Steve Allen
Allen, an astronomer, discusses leap years, leap seconds  and how to avoid their use when redefining Coordinated Universal Time (UTC): three pictures that show the situation; elapsed time (JavaScript that shows POSIX's inability to provide an interface
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