 The Problem with Algebraic Models of Marriage Structure  James M. Cargal; The Math Forum
Algebraic models of marriage systems have been in use for nearly fifty years. These models continue to be a matter of controversy. Most anthropologists have found algebraic models abstract and unnecessary. Mathematical scientists have tended to consider
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 Production Functions and Cost Schedules  Elmer G. Wiens; Egwald Web Services Ltd.
Production functions, such as the CobbDouglas and CES, underly cost
schedules used to model firms in microeconomics. The models illustrate
this link and show the relation between long and short run cost schedules.
Uses calculus (Langrangians)
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 Prof. Dr, H.C. Tijms  Henk Tijms
Home page for this professor. Includes two software packages, free for noncommercial use: MCQueue (educational software for Markov chains and queues), and ORSTAT2000 (educational software for probability and operations research, including modules for
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 Professional Development Programs for Grade K12 Teachers of Mathematics  The State University of New Jersey  Rutgers
Read about and apply for summer institutes such as Institutes for New Teachers of Mathematics and Science, Helping All Students Succeed in Grades 712 Mathematics, the Leadership Program in Discrete Mathematics, and the DIMACS Connect Institute; conferences
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 Professional Development  Texas Instruments, Inc. (TI)
Learn about the T3 Teacher Leader Cadre Program, onsite systemic professional development; T3 Outreach Program, short term, onsite professional development; T3 international and regional conferences; free online courses for professional development;
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 Professional Homework Help
Solutions to your mathematics and statistics homework problems. Request a free quote.
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 Profession Jokes  Mathematicians  David Shay
Jokes about proofs, mathematicians, and mathematics.
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 Professora Karolina Barone Ribeiro da Silva  Karolina Barone Ribeiro da Silva
Aulas de geometria incluem geometria esférica e geografia, geometria não euclidiana e a física, uma guia com atividades simples sobre geometria euclidiana plana, e "de Euclides a Poincaré." Veja tambem as coleções
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 Professor Badih Ghusayni
Ghusayni, who teaches in the Department of Mathematics at Lebanese University, serves as Founder and Managing Editor of the International Journal of Mathematics and Computer Science. Purchase and download his books and journal articles on complex and
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 Professor Badih Ghusayni's Books  Badih Ghusayni
Books include Solved Problems in Analysis: A Companion to Math Majors, and Number Theory from an Analytic Point of View (for amateurs and professionals alike). The latter work is also available in French.
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 Professor L N Trefethen, Numerical Analysis  Balliol College, Oxford University, UK
Links to books and recent papers by the head of the Numerical Analysis Group at Oxford University. Books include: Spectral Methods in Matlab, Finite Difference and Spectral Methods, Numerical Linear Algebra, and Spectra and Pseudospectra.
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 Professor Warwick Sawyer  Mark Alder
Articles by the author of Mathematician's Delight: "Things and Unthings  An approach to negative numbers," "The Contribution of Music to Mathematical Discovery," "Some Thoughts on Education and Mathematics," "Saturday Morning Mathematics in Cambridge,"
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 Profile (John H. Conway): Not Just Fun and Games  Mark Alpert, Scientific American
A short biography of the Englishborn Princeton University mathematician and a discussion of some of his major mathematical contributions. ...over the past three decades Conway has made some of his greatest contributions to mathematical theory by analyzing
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 Prof. McFarland's Help Center for Mathematics Students  Thomas McFarland, Department of Mathematical and Computer Sciences, University of Wisconsin System
McFarland's handouts for courses such as Finite Mathematics, Basic Algebra, Calculus, and The Logic of Chess. Interactive (JavaScript) selftests or explorations cover integer and fractional exponents; factoring; reducing, adding, multiplying, and dividing
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 ProFootballFocus.com  Neil Hornsby
Which tight end (TE) is the best blocker for run and for pass? Which cornerback (CB) is the best run defender? Which tackle (T) was the worst pass protector in 2010? ProFootballFocus.com offers indepth and unique information on professional football
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 Progetto Polymath  Federico Peiretti
In Italian: E' un progetto didattico avviato da un gruppo di docenti delle superiori, dell'Università e del Politecnico di Torino, rivolto agli studenti delle superiori, con l'obiettivo di ritrovare la dimensione culturale della Matematica. Pubblica ogni
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 Programming with Sets  Dept. of Computer Science, New Mexico State University
Using settheoretic primitives as a conceptual tool in programming. Includes a discussion of the SETL and MIRANDA languages. Setoriented programming means thinking and designing programs with set data abstractions in mind, trying to really exploit all
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 Programs  Eight Queens / Knight's Tour  Prashant
Programs for implementing some popular algorithms from graph theory, including programs for solving Eight Queens / Knight's Tour, using Heuristics.
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 A Progression of Primes  Ivars Peterson (MathTrek)
Searches for patterns among prime numbers  whole numbers exactly divisible only by themselves and one  have long served as stiff tests of the ingenuity and perseverance of mathematicians. In recent years, the use of computers has brought a steady stream
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 ProjectBased Instruction in Mathematics for the Liberal Arts  M. B. Ulmer; University of South Carolina at Spartanburg
Information and activities/projects for a complete projectbased postalgebra course for liberal arts majors, also suitable for use with high school courses following algebra. Activities are in PDF format.
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 Project Based Learning Pathways  David Graser
A blog about real life projects suitable for college math courses such as algebra, finite math, and business calculus. Most of these applied math projects include handouts, videos, and other resources for students, as well as a project letter. Graser,
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 Project CALC: Calculus as a Laboratory Course  Lawrence C. Moore and David A. Smith, Duke University
An NSFfunded curriculum development project that has produced materials for a threesemester reform calculus course emphasizing realworld problems, handson activities, discovery learning, writing and revision of writing, teamwork, intelligent use of
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 Project Euclid  Cornell University Library
Project Euclid seeks to "advance scholarly communication in the field of theoretical and applied mathematics and statistics." Access and distribution plans for journal fulltext content include fulltext searching, reference linking, interoperability
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 Project Euler  Colin Hughes
Browse hundreds of challenging problems that require mathematical insights as well as computer and programming skills to solve. Popular puzzles include "Add all the natural numbers below one thousand that are multiples of 3 or 5," "By considering the
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 project Eureka
project Eureka is a collaboratively edited site for problem solvers/creators—regardless of problem or field. Add problems with quantifiable results; or group problems in a test.
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 Project Hermite  Shayne Waldron
Because bounding the error in Hermite interpolation in terms of the derivative which kills the interpolating space is of interest in numerical analysis and in the analysis of ordinary differential equations, there is an extensive literature on the subject.
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 Projectile Dynamics in Sport  Colin White
Treatise of a range of sports equipment. Authored by a Principal Lecturer at the University of Portsmouth, Projectile Dynamics in Sport begins with a mathematical treatment of the general principles of flight, examining balls, discusses, javelins, shot
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 Projective Conics (Gallery of Interactive Geometry)  Mathew Frank; The Geometry Center
This discussion of Pascal's theorem in terms of projective geometry includes an interactive application that lets you specify points on a conic and see how the theorem applies to them. Conics and Hexagons: Pascal's Theorem; Brianchon's Theorem; Some Stronger
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 Projective geometry and transformations  Albert Goodman; Deakin University (Rusden), Clayton, Victoria, Australia
Applications of projective geometry and transformations for computer graphics. 2D projection and coordinate systems; and transformations. From a course in Computer Graphics and Imaging.
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 Project List  Thomas Banchoff
Projects: a remake of The Flat Torus in the ThreeSphere, a film originally created in 1968; "Complex Function Graphs"; selflinking of curves on the 3sphere; "Monge and Desargues, Identified" (requires the Geometer's Sketchpad); a "sketchpad" for spherical
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 Project Muse  Johns Hopkins University Press
Worldwide networked subscription access to the full text of the Johns Hopkins University Press's 40+ scholarly journals in the humanities, social sciences, and mathematics. Search for Mathematics, or browse the American Journal of Mathematics.
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 Project NExT: New Experiences in Teaching  MAA, Exxon
Project NExT (New Experiences in Teaching) is a program for new or recent Ph.D.s in the mathematical sciences who are interested in improving the teaching and learning of undergraduate mathematics. See, in particular, Classroom Materials: Writing Intensive
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 Project Poison Applet  Computer Science Dept., Trinity College Dublin
A site created by firstyear computer science students as a Java programming project. Each of 12 topics (Algebra; Geometry; Trigonometry; Calculus; Matrices; Sequences & Series; Complex Numbers; Vectors; Probability; Groups; Further Calculus; Further
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 Project Search: Math  Buck Institute for Education
Dozens of studies and summaries of research on project based learning (PBL) in math. The Buck Institute for Education (BIE) is creates and disseminates products, practices and knowledge for effective PBL.
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 The Projects of R. W. Gray  Robert W. Gray
Geometric coffee tables, an introduction to polyhedra and the jitterbug (a dynamic polyhedron) that draws on the golden ratio, a collection of notes with respect to R. Buckminster Fuller's work, photos of a dome frame Gray built with students at Oswego
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 Project Welcome (Web Educator's Library Collection of Mathematical Explorations)  MAA (Mathematical Association of America)
Interactive mathematical programs in a newly developed, Javabased interface.
Download online or offline versions of the player. Twenty lessons, with summaries, include "Best Linear Fit," "Limits of Functions," "Piecewise Functions," "Nonlinear Equations,"
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 Projet Folium
Folium est un ensemble organisé d'articles sur les mathématiques, du cours aux biographies de mathématiciens célèbres, en passant par les exos les plus classiques et les théorèmes les plus puissants. Articles
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 Projet PRISME  INRIA, Sophia Antipolis
Les activités du projet PRISME sont centrées sur la géométrie algorithmique et ses applications, et sur les aspects géométriques de la robotique. Les études sont motivées par les nombreux domaines
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 Promoting Engagement and Supporting Leadership Development:
Online Teacher Professional Development at the Math Forum  Wesley Shumar, Jason Silverman, & Troy P. Regis, Drexel University
PDFformat article. Abstract: Teacher professional development (TPD) in its current state is typically episodic, fragmented, and often not rewarding over the long haul. There is need for a more substantial and extensive core set of TPD experiences that
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 Pronunciation Guide to Mathematicians  Gary S. Stoudt, Mathematics Dept., Indiana Univ. of Pennsylvania
Pronunciations of the names of mathematicians frequently encountered by undergraduate students, with links to information about them in the MacTutor History of Mathematics archives. Note on Pronunciation: Not all of the phonetic pronunciation symbols
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 Proof  Mariotti, MariaAlessandra; and Pedemonte, Bettina, editors
Archives of the quarterly "international newsletter on the teaching and learning of mathematical proof." Articles have included "The effect of using Transparent PseudoProofs in Linear Algebra," "Beliefs and beyond: hows and whys in the teaching of proof,"
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 A Proof of the Full ShimuraTaniyamaWeil Conjecture  Henri Darmon
Download an article in PDFformat on the completion of the proof by Wiles, Breuil, Conrad, Diamond and Taylor.
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 A Proof of the Pythagorean Theorem by Liu Hui (third century A.D.)  Donald B. Wagner
Web version of an article which appeared in Historia mathematica, 1985, 12, pp. 713. Includes Chinese characters, which were not in the published version. Some statements here are no longer up to date, but the article has not been significantly modified.
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 A Proof of the Pythagorean Theorem  Isaac Reed
One of the most famous theorems in mathematics, the Pythagorean theorem has many proofs. Presented here is one that relies on Euclidean algebraic geometry and is thus beautifully simple.
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 Proofs in Mathematics  Interactive Mathematics Miscellany and Puzzles, Alexander Bogomolny
A discussion of the value of proofs in the classroom, followed by a collection of proofs classified as either simple or charming. Simple proofs: Number of vowels in a Lewis Carroll game; Pigeonhole Principle; Number of X's and O's; Coloring points in
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 Proofs Wiki  Brunner Nathan
A communitybased collection of definitions, proofs, and theorems. The Proofs Wiki composition interface supports LaTeX and tooltips.
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 Proofs Without Words  Cut the Knot!, Alexander Bogomolny
Martin Gardner wrote, "There is no more effective aid in understanding certain algebraic identities than a good diagram. One should, of course, know how to manipulate algebraic symbols to obtain proofs, but in many cases a dull proof can be supplemented
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 Proof Techniques (Analysis Webnotes)  John Lindsay Orr; Dept. of Mathematics & Statistics, Univ. of NebraskaLincoln
Techniques of writing proofs for: Showing two sets are equal; Showing a set is closed; How to show a sequence converges; and How to use a convergent sequence (to prove other things).
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 A Proof that e is Irrational  Isaac Reed
A proof by contradiction that relies on the expression of e as a power series.
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 A Proof That e is Transcendental  Travis Kidd
A proof by contradiction, adapted from Klein, Famous Problems (New York: Chelsea Publishing Company, 1962).
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