 Pi and the Fibonacci Numbers  Ron Knott
Contents: How Pi is calculated (Measuring the steepness of a hill; The tangent of an angle; The arctan function; Gregory's Formula for arctan(t); Radian measure; Gregory's series and pi; Using Gregory's Series to calculate pi; Machin's Formula; Another
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 Pi Approximation Day Greeting Cards  123Greetings
123Greetings  Send Free Electronic Greeting Cards to Friends and Families all over the World. There are no images available for Pi Approximation Day, but backgrounds and a variety of slogans are available, and you can write your own.
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 Pi: A Source Book  J. Borwein, SpringerVerlag
A complete history of pi, with resources for teachers for anything from special topic courses to individual talks and special student projects. The literature on pi included in this source book falls into three classes: a selection of the mathematical
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 Pick a Digit, Any Digit  Ivars Peterson (MathTrek)
One of the most amazing mathematical results of the last few years was the discovery of a surprisingly simple formula for computing digits of the number pi. Unlike previously known methods, this one allows you to calculate isolated digits  without computing
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 Pick a number from 1 to 10 ... for SCIENCE!  Alec Perkins
"When asked 'pick a number from 1 to 10,' people tend to pick certain numbers more than others, in particular 7 and 4 over the extremes...." Participate by choosing your own number; see bar graphs and line plots of data submitted thus far according to
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 Picking Winners  Ivars Peterson (MathTrek)
One of the attractive features of spectator sports is the uncertainty of the outcome. Even when one team is overwhelmingly favored to win, the underdog may still come through with a surprising victory. Nonetheless, the ability to pick winners can be of
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 Pick's Theorem  Cut the Knot!, Alexander Bogomolny
A description with proof of Pick's theorem, including links to further pages including exercises with an applet for the geoboard, Farey Series, and SternBrocot Tree. An interactive column for MAA Online that uses a Java applet to simulate a puzzle or
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 Pi Digit Pendants  Cliff Spielman
The first 3,456 digits of the decimal expansion of pi — microscopically printed on a silverplated, 15mm square. Fibonacci, prime number, and other variations available from Spielman's MicroPendants site. Jewelry available as a freestanding pendant,
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 The PiDye TShirt Shop  Josh Cummings
Purchase from a variety of pi and other math tshirts, mugs, clocks, etc., including the famous MathSpeak tshirt.
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 Pi Mu Epsilon
Pi Mu Epsilon, Inc., an honorary national mathematics society, was founded on May 25, 1914 at Syracuse University. It is a nonsecret organization, the purpose of which is the promotion of scholarly activity in mathematics among the students in academic
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 Pinpointing Prey  Ivars Peterson (MathTrek)
The sand scorpion uses two types of sensors on the tips of its legs to detect mechanical vibrations transmitted over relatively short distances across the surface. One sensor, called the basitarsal slit sensillum, detects surface waves, or ripples. The
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 The Pi Pages  Centre for Experimental and Constructive Mathematics (CECM)
"Pi is one of the few concepts in mathematics whose mention evokes a response of recognition and interest in those not concerned professionally with the subject. It has been a part of human culture and the educated imagination for more than twenty five
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 PiSearch
Search the first four billion binary digits of Pi for a string. Enter the string in hex (4 bit) or character (5 bit) format. Includes some statistics (probability of occurrence of characters, digits). Related links include articles and papers.
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 The PiSearch Page  Dave Andersen
Search the first 50 million digits of pi for any numeric string up to 120 digits. The page also documents a few observations about pi's numeric strings, including selflocating strings, palindromes, and monthday combinations.
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 Pi Squared over Six  Clive Tooth
"This value, (pi^2)/6, seems to crop up quite often in mathematics. I think that most of these occurrences can be traced back to the fact that it is the sum of the reciprocals of the squares of the positive integers...." See the first 500 decimal places
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 Pi Symphony  Lars Erickson
Lars Erickson composed the Pi Symphony in the early 1990's. The themes and melodies of this 14 minute orchestral piece are directly based on pi's first 32 digits, with countermelodies developed from the number e. Listen to samples of Erickson's musical
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 Pitfalls of Data Analysis  Clay Helberg
Subtitled "... or How to Avoid Lies and Damned Lies," this paper discusses what people "often overlook in their data analysis, and ways people sometimes 'bend the rules' of statistics to support their viewpoint." Tips to ensure the clarity and accuracy
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 Pi Through the Ages  MacTutor Math History Archives
A history of pi: the Rhind papyrus (Egypt), Ptolemy, Tsu Ch'ung Chi, al'Khwarizmi, Al'Kashi, Viet, Romanus, Van Ceulen, Gregory, Shanks, Lambert, Euler, Buffon, and many more, with other Web sites and 30 references (books/articles).
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 The Pi Trivia Game  Eve A. Andersson
Test your knowledge of history, mathematics, and even a little physics. Here are 25 (given to you 5 at a time) pirelated questions, picked randomly from a pi question database. Also at http://cid.com/~eveander/trivia/.
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 pLab: Random Number Generation  Peter Hellekalek; Mathematics Dept., University of Salzburg
Results and links on this fundamental topic in stochastic simulation. RNGs are deterministic algorithms that produce numbers with certain distribution properties. Roughly speaking, these numbers should behave similar to realizations of independent, identically
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 Planar Geometry (The Geometry Junkyard)  David Eppstein, Theory Group, ICS, UC Irvine
An extensive annotated list of links to material on planar geometry.
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 Planarity Flash Game  John Tantalo
Arrange the vertices such that no edges overlap. Solve graphs of increasing difficulty, accumulating points based on the number of moves and the time it took to make them.
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 Plane Geometry by Shalosh B. Ekhad, XIV  Doron Zeilberger
A textbook entirely written in Maple, "by" Shalosh B. Ekhad, XIV (ca. 2050), "downloaded from the future" by Doron Zeilberger. Code provided, with illustrations and instructions.
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 Plane Geometry Web Pages  David Jaffe
Materials from a geometry course originally taught to future middle and high school teachers. Using definitions, theorems, proofs, and examples, the site introduces mappings; isometries and similarities; angles and trigonometry; congruence and similarity;
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 Plane Graphic Calculator  J. E. Lillge
A Java calculator that can plot graphs of mathematical functions. Intended primarily as an educational aid to understanding the geometric interpretation of mathematical functions, it also supports complex numbers, vectors, and parametrically defined functions.
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 Plane Patterns  Ivars Peterson (MathTrek)
Exploring the link between mathematical symmetry and artistic effort. One and twodimensional repeating patterns appear ubiquitously on surfaces, from quilts and colored fabrics to pottery and ceramic tiles... Analyzing the symmetries that underlie such
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 Planes of Budapest  Ivars Peterson (MathTrek)
Nearly every Sunday during the winter of 1933 in Budapest, a small group of students would meet somewhere in the city at a park or cafe to discuss mathematics. The gathering typically included Paul Erdös (19131996), György (George) Szekeres,
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 Planet Math
Designed to be a central repository for mathematical knowledge on the web, with a pedagogical slant. All content is usercontributed, either to the Encyclopedia or to the reviewed listings of papers, books, and lecture notes. Polls, discussions, and feedback
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 PlanetMath.Org Article Browser  martin.czygan
All articles from PlanetMath.org ordered by pagerankan attempt to sort math topics by importance (according to the pagerank algorithm). Incoming and outgoing links for an article are shown in an unobtrusive user interface.
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 Planetqhe (Probabilistic Learning Activities Network)  David Kay Harris
Outoftheordinary probability problems. The site focuses on using methods of probability to solve counterintuitive problems and deepen students' understanding and competence in the domain. Sections include: a brief history and rationale of the site;
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 The Planimeter  Paul Kunkel
The planimeter is a drafting instrument used to measure the area of a graphically represented planar region. The region being measured may have any irregular shape, making this instrument remarkably versatile.
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 plantri and fullgen  Gunnar Brinkmann, University of Bielefeld, and Brendan McKay, Australian National University.
Programs for generating certain types of planar graph. Graphs are generated in such a way that exactly one member of each isomorphism class is output without the need for storing them. The speed of generation is more than 100,000 graphs per second in
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 Plato: Acceptance of Astronomy as a Science  Michael Tirabassi
Translations from Plato's Dialogues (Loeb edition): The Myth of Er (a multihemispere model of the sky  Republic, X, 616B617). The True Astronomer Must be the Wisest of Men (Epinomis 990a); Pursue Astronomy as you Would Geometry (Republic 530b); Realise
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 The Platonic Solids and Polyhedra  Paul Flavin
The 5 Platonic Solids and one oddball polyhedron (a soccer ball). The kinship among the polyhedra is reflected in a 'family photo'. The polyhedra are laid out in a triangular pattern, with the tetrahedron alone in its row, joined with the other Platonic
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 Platonic Solids  Paul Bourke
Definitions, formulas, and illustrations of the threedimensional regular polyhedra: tetrahedron, octahedron, hexahedron (cube), icosahedron, dodecahedron, including the solids as drawn in Kepler's Mysterium Cosmographicum, and as represented in stone
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 Platonic Spheres (Dr. Neubert's Website)  KarlDietrich Neubert
A systematic approach to generating the Platonic bodies, using Java applets. A major aspect is the inclusion of Descartes' concept of angular deficit as a measure of curvature. An extension of Platonic bodies to Platonic spheres.
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 Plato's Molecule  Ivars Peterson (MathTrek)
In his dialogue Timaeus, the Greek philosopher Plato (427347 B.C.) carefully laid out his reasoning for ascribing certain geometric shapes to the minuscule particles that constituted the four elements of matter. In his view, these elements  fire, air,
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 A Playground of Thoughts  Takasugi Shinji
Takasugi's "Number Systems of the World" lists dozens of languages; how to count from zero to one hundred in each; and the mathematical meaning of the expressions for each numeral. For example, the French say "93" with quatrevingttreize, which means
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 Playing with RuthAaron Pairs  Ivars Peterson (MathLand)
On April 8, 1974, Henry (Hank) Aaron hit his 715th major league home run, surpassing the previous mark of 714 career home runs long held by baseball great Babe Ruth. Understandably, the event received considerable coverage in newspapers and magazines
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 Plexagon  Pleated Hexagon  Paul Bourke, Ron Evans
Plexagon is a new modular geometry based on the radial pleating of polygonal plates, and their joining or cobracing into 3D modules. This engineering approach can form a very practical basis for modular greenhouses (using recycled plastic sheeting) and
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 Plot a Graph  Vladimir Sorokin; University of Kentucky
An applet that allows you to enter and plot functions of one variable. Enter an expression with a variable x to be plotted, the number of points to calculate, and the range of your variable in the corresponding textfields below the plotting area, and
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 Plotting Functions of a Complex Variable  George Abdo, Paul Godfrey
Graphs of functions of a complex variable, compared with graphs of functions of a real variable (the Introduction includes a review). Includes Conformal Maps requiring Möbius and SchwartzChristoffel Transformations. Full color images show conformal
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 Plouffe's Inverter  Simon Plouffe
A database of more than 84,800,000 mathematical constants like Pi, Sqrt(2), Catalan and Euler's gamma. Enter a number, search or browse, and the programs will find what the number is made of. From the author of the Encyclopedia of Integer Sequences (with
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 Plouffe's Inverter: Table of current records for the computation of constants
Classical constants: Pi, 1/Pi, E, Catalan, Zeta(3), Euler's gamma, log(2), Golden Ratio, Square root of 2, N'th binary digit computations, other interesting computations (Bernoulli numbers, Zeros of Riemann's Zeta Function, Madelung Constant, Khintchine
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 Plusepsilon.de  Marc Palm
Questionandanswer German language platform for undergraduate and graduate math students. Browse or search questions by users, by tags of math topics, and other options. Not intended as a discussion platform, Plusεpsilon rewards participation
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 Plus Magazine  Department of Applied Mathematics and Theoretical Physics, University of Cambridge
Plus (formerly PASSMaths) is a triannual online magazine for older pupils and the general public. It publishes articles explaining the diverse applications of mathematics used in solving problems in physics, chemistry, biology, engineering, and economics.
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 PM Zone Science Search  Popular Mechanics
Enter words describing a concept or keywords you wish to find information about to conduct a keyword search of the science/technology magazine Popular Mechanics. For topics other than science, see the PM Search Page.
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 PNA: Revista de Investigación en Didáctica de la Matemática
PNA is a peerreview open access research journal published by the Spanish research group "Mathematics Education. Numerical Thinking" of the Andalusian Plan of Research. This journal includes papers in English and Spanish related to the teaching and learning
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 Podcast Directory: Math  Podseek
Podcasts of various math instruction and tutorials. Log in to rate or review the links.
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 Poem about the Riemann Zeta Function  Tom Apostol
A poem about the zeta function and the Riemann hypothesis, linked to explanations of the important concepts by Chris Hughes.
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