 ORLibrary  J. E. Beasley; Imperial College of Science, Medicine and Technology
A collection of test data sets for a variety of Operations Research (OR) problems, available via emailing to o.rlibrary@ic.ac.uk a message containing the name of the required file, or via FTP/WWW using the links provided. Also at http://mscmga.ms.ic.ac.uk/info.html.
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 OR/MS Today
Online version of the magazine for members of the Institute for Operations Research and the Management Sciences (INFORMS). Current and previous issues, with full text of many articles; subscription information; software surveys; classified ads and list
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 ORNotes  J. E. Beasley
Introductory originally used in an introductory OR course at Imperial College. Topics: Introductory (basic concepts); Deterministic (data envelopment analysis, facility layout and location, graph theory, integer programming, inventory control, justintime,
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 Orthocenter  Paul Kunkel
What is significant about the orthocenter of a triangle? Why does it even have a name? This investigation was prepared for a geometry teachers' workshop. It includes a lesson handout in Word format and was written for use in a computer lab with the Geometer's
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 Oscience.info  Subash Chandra
Introductions to limits and continuity, derivatives and antiderivatives, functions and graphs, matrices and determinants, properties of triangles, set theory, basic trigonometric formulae, and trigonometric functions and identities. See also Oscience's
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 Other Maths  Jon Perry
Notes, applets, and proofs on a variety of open problems and conjectures: roots of x^p, highest power of 2 that divides ab + bc + ca, a prime product paradox, consecutive integers, (n + 1)!, Collatz, nsecting a line, the first lower digit, Fibonacci,
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 The OU Calculus I Problem Archive  Dept. of Mathematics, Oklahoma University (OU)
Sample problems, with hints, answers, and "the grisly details": 1. Functions, calculus style; Graphs; Machine graphics; What is a function?; A field guide to elementary functions. 2. Amount functions and rate functions; The geometry of derivatives; The
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 The Oughtred Society  Oughtred
An organization dedicated to the history and collection of slide rules. Meet William Oughtred, inventor of the modern slide rule; learn about the history and background of the Oughtred Society and its principles; join or renew membership; browse tables
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 Overcoming Greatness: The Decline and Recovery of British Mathematics in the PostNewton Era  Robert Bruen; Harvard University
An historical essay on Newton and Leibniz, British Progress, European Progress, and the story of the overthrow of Newton's notation at Cambridge. Includes a bibliography.
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 Overthinking My Teaching  Christopher Danielson
Blog by a community college math teacher "interested in hard questions about teaching." Posts, which date back to July, 2009, have included "Wump hats," "An unnoticed rule for number language," "The end of word problems," "Cubeyness," "Cardinal and ordinal
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 An overview of Babylonian mathematics  MacTutor Math History Archives
Linked essay exploring the arithmetic and geometry of the Babylonians, who lived in Mesopotamia, a fertile plain between the Tigris and Euphrates rivers. The Babylonian civilization replaced the Sumerian civilisation and the Akkadian civilisation; this
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 An overview of Egyptian mathematics  MacTutor Math History Archives
Linked essay on the development of the Egyptian number systems, and the arithmetical methods they devised to work with their numerals. With references and other related web sites.
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 An overview of Indian mathematics  MacTutor Math History Archives
Linked essay on the contributions of Indian mathematics, in particular the number system invented by the Indians, on which much of mathematical development has rested. With references and other related web sites.
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 Overview of "Mathematician's Secret Room"  Hisanori Mishima
Challenges to unsolved problems in Number Theory, some translated into English from the Japanese.
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 Overview of the History of Mathematics  MacTutor Math History Archives
Linked overview from the Babylonians through topics from the twentieth century, with additional sections on notation and communication, brilliant discoveries, how we view history, and a challenge, as well as a 700item general bibliography.
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 Oxford University Press
The world's largest university press, publishing 3,000 new books a year, including scholarly works in all academic disciplines, bibles, music, school and college textbooks, children's books, materials for teaching English as a second language, business
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 OzGrid Business Applications  Dave Hawley
Focus on Microsoft Excel and Spreadsheet applications, with over 4000 pages (and growing) of information. Newsletter, most popular productgs, templates, books, question and answer forum.
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 Pacific Institute for the Mathematical Sciences (PIMS)
A networked institute based in Alberta and British Columbia, Canada. Primarily dedicated to the support and advancement of mathematical science in Western Canada and the Pacific Rim, it maintains physical offices at the Universities of Alberta, British
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 Packomania  E. Specht
The best known packings of equal circles in the unit square and the unit circle. Tables summarize the current status of the search. Figures may be downloaded in postscript format. Also available from http://hydra.nat.unimagdeburg.de/packing/packing.html.
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 Pagina de Pedro Hugo Garcia Pelaez  Pedro Hugo Garcia Pelaez
Pagina con diversas calculadoras fisicas y matematicas. Apuntes y links relacionados. Calculadoras: Programa de resolución de multiplicación de matrices hasta orden 6; Forma de Jordan; Calculadora de diagonalización; Calculadora de proyecciones; Calculadora
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 Paginedimatematica  Bruno Tomaino
In Italian: Analisi, trigonometria, equazioni differenziali, test a risposta multipla.
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 Palindromic Numbers and Other Recreational Topics  Patrick De Geest
Many odd facts about big (and little) numbers, including circular primes and palindromic triangulars, tetrahedrals, squares, cubes, and primes. Also assorted odd puzzles, etc.
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 Palindromic Primes  Ivars Peterson (MathTrek)
Palindromic primes are whole numbers, evenly divisible only by themselves and 1, that also have the same sequence of digits read forward or backward... The current record for the largest known palindromic prime is held by Harvey Dubner, a retired electrical
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 Palisade
Software for Excel, including @RISK, using Monte Carlo simulation, and PrecisionTree, for risk analysis, decision analysis, optimization, and forecasting.
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 PAM Electronic Discussion List (PAMnet)  Parker Ladwig and Thurston Miller (list owners)
An electronic discussion forum for the discussion of library and information resource issues relevant to the fields of physics, astronomy and mathematics, maintained by the PhysicsAstronomyMathematics (PAM) Division of the Special Libraries Association.
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 Panagiotis Stefanides
Geometry presented at national conferences in Greece. Contents include: Quantization of Circle Duality; Logos Pyr Chronos; 'Buena Fortuna' (artwork); Geometric Mean Ratio (T) by Ruler and Compass; Quadrature Master Theorem; Corollary (Circle Circumference
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 Panitz cooperative learning and WAC web page and much more  Ted Panitz, Cape Cod Community College
Workshops, articles, and other resources on cooperative learning and pedagogy.
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 PaperFoldingFractals  Joel Castellanos, Rice University
A classroom teaching or personal learning software tool for Windows that can be an introductory lesson to fractals. Simple, stepbystep processes of paper folding can give rise to infinite verities of fractals. The user learns what fractals are and how
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 Paper Models of Polyhedra  Gijs Korthals Altes
Dozens of paper models of polyhedra: Platonic and Archimedean solids, compounds, caleidocyli, and more. Print the images, cut, and glue them together, or download the models in zipped CorelDraw or GIF format.
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 Papers  A. R. D. Mathias
Downloadable papers in DVI PostScript format: a piece on Bourbaki; a piece on Stalin; a long piece on Mac Lane set theory; a short piece on Zermelo set theory; a recent piece on Strong Statements of Analysis; and three other papers, appdyn97, delays97
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 Papers  Chaim GoodmanStrauss, Dept. of Mathematics, Univ. of Arkansas
On Composite Twisted Unknots; Matching Rules and Substitution Tilings; Aperiodic Hierarchical Tilings; Bounding the Results of Arithmetic Operations on Random Variables with Unknown Dependency; A Small Set of Planar Aperiodic Tiles; A Pair of Aperiodic
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 Papers on Riemannian Geometry  Alan Weinstein
Papers written by graduate students in the course Math 240, Riemannian Geometry, in the Spring Semester of 1995 at the Univ. of California at Berkeley. Each paper is either a survey of an area or a tutorial essay in a topic related to riemannian geometry.
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 Papers on the History of Mathematics  Gregory Cherlin, Rutgers University
A random selection of term papers submitted in undergraduate, onesemester courses on the history of mathematics. Topics include zero, Fermat, Euler, Newton, Euclid's proof of the Pythagorean Theorem, Fibonacci, Vieta, conic sections, mathematics at Princeton
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 Parallel Applications in Statistics and Economics (PASE)
Announcements of meetings, previous PASE workshops and where conference proceedings are published. Subjects: parallel algorithms and artificial neural networks; dynamical chaotic systems and fuzzy logic; stochastic optimization concepts; genetic algorithms
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 Parallel Coordinates  Alfred Inselberg
Download articles, read a course syllabus, and see images about a method for visualizing multidimensional spaces with industry applications that have included visual and automatic (classification) data mining, optimization, GIS, process control, decision
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 Parcelles d'infiniPromenade au jardin d'Escher  Alain Nicolas
Book in French, largely composed of pictures, on methods of figurative tiling. Site includes links to related sites in French and English.
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 Partial Differential Equations  Dave Rusin; The Mathematical Atlas
A short article designed to provide an introduction to partial differential equations. Like ordinary differential equations, partial differential equations are equations to be solved in which the unknown element is a function, but in PDEs the function
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 PartsLibrary.com
A CAD resource with a large SolidWorks parts library. Access is reserved for registered PartsLibrary environment users.
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 Party Games  Ivars Peterson (MathTrek)
You're one of six people at a dinner party. You would undoubtedly find that the dinner party includes either a group of at least three people who all know one another or a group of at least three people who don't know one another. The reason for this
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 PASCALC.com  Pascal C.
A Webbased calculator with output printed linebyline on the screen. You can pass series of calculations on to your peers by sending a link. Note: the link is not encrypted, and you might consider something like tinyurl.com to shorten the link.
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 Pascal's Fractals  Ivars Peterson (MathLand)
It's possible to convert Pascal's triangle into eyecatching geometric forms. For example, one can replace the odd coefficients with 1 and even coefficients with 0. Continuing the pattern for many rows reveals an everenlarging host of triangles, of varying
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 Pascal's Triangle from Top to Bottom  Matthew Hubbard and Tom Roby
A comprehensive resource for the study of Pascal's Triangle. The section "Applications" addresses questions such as "What types of questions are answered by the binomial coefficients?" and "What number greater than 1 shows up most often in Pascal's Triangle?"
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 Pascal's Triangle using Clock Arithmetic  Jay's Corner
Exploring Pascal's triangle when the modulus is a prime; when the modulus is a power of a prime; and when the modulus has at least two different prime divisors. From mod 2 to mod 12, illustrated. (See also Part II.)
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 Pascal Triangle Applet  Sergey Butkevich
An applet that graphically presents Pascal's triangle modulo an integer number p; i.e. it computes the binomial coefficients. It can draw triangles with up to 650 rows with a p value between 2 and 30,000 (though it's not very clear above 15,000). The
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 Passalgebra.com
Pass algebra with this online study guide. Practice with hundreds of problems, with answers worked out step by step. Examples of study guide and exercises provided. $27 for 1 year; stepbystep instruction for $2.50/problem.
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 Pass Calculus  Le Site PassCalculus.com
Calculus question solution service. Solutions offered via email, phone, or fax; quotes are free; payment by credit card. Sample solutions and FAQ online.
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 A Passion for Pi  Ivars Peterson (MathLand)
Some of you may be familiar with the sentence: How I want a drink, alcoholic of course, after the heavy lectures involving quantum mechanics! The number of letters in each word represents successive digits of pi: 3.14159265358979. How Simon Plouffe memorized
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 Pasta by Design  George L. Legendre
Photos of architect Legendre's 2011 book by the same title. Pasta by Design provides an illustrated taxonomy of over 90 forms of pasta, along with the mathematical formulae, descriptions of special attributes, and advice on specific cooking uses for each
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 Past Lectures  Gresham College
Dozens of video lectures by Robin Wilson, Gresham Professor of Geometry and former Visiting Professor in the History of Mathematics: "The Great Mathematicians," "Early Mathematics Day," "Lewis Carroll in Numberland," "Topics in the History of Financial
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 Path Puzzles  Erich's Puzzle Palace; Erich Friedman
Sixteen paththroughagrid puzzles; can you fill in the correct path? Answers provided.
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