 Constructivism: Vygotsky and the Internet  Mathematics Education at The Math Forum
The ideas of Lev Semenovich Vygotsky have sparked considerable thought on the topic of constructivism. The Math Forum has collected a list of links to sites, projects, and articles about Vygotsky, constructivism, and the Internet, including comparisons
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 Constructivist Mathematics and Unicorns  Lee V. Stiff
The thenpresident of NCTM lays out distinctions among various forms of constructivism, and how they relate to the Principles and Standards, in this 2001 article.
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 A Constructivist View of Science Education  University of Massachusetts Physics Education Research Group (UMPERG)
Four premises of constructivism: knowledge is constructed, not transmitted; prior knowledge impacts the learning process; initial understanding is local, not global; and building useful knowledge structures requires effortful and purposeful activity;
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 Constructivist Views of Learning in Science and Mathematics (ERIC Digest)  Drew K. Ishii
An examination of constructivism and its implications for the classroom, with web and print resources for additional study.
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 Constructor  Soda
Constructor animates and edits twodimensional models made out of masses and springs. The springs can be controlled by a wave to make pulsing muscles, and you can construct models that bounce, roll, walk, etc. Try some of the readymade models or build
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 Contentbased Image Retrieval Project  Computer Science Department, Stanford University
Project group members; online demos; SIMPLIcity: Semanticssensitive Integrated Matching for Picture LIbraries; related links.
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 Contingency Analysis  Glyn Holton
Information on financial risk management, including value at risk, derivative instruments, credit risk and financial engineering. Discussion groups of risk management professionals; fundamentals, with an overview of enterprise risk management; research
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 Continued Fractions and Chaos (Organic Mathematics Proceedings)  Robert M. Corless
From the Proceedings of the Organic Mathematics Workshop. This paper is meant for the reader who knows something about continued fractions, and wishes to know more about the theory of chaotic dynamical systems; it is also useful for the person who knows
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 Continued Fractions: an Introduction  Adam Van Tuyl
A brief introduction to the field of continued fractions, including some basic theory about the subject; the history of continued fractions, tracing some of the major developments in the field in the past 2500 years; some interactive applications that
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 Continued Fractions, Infinite Continued Fractions, and Iteration  Don Cohen, The Mathman
Ten different ways to solve a quadratic equation  an area of mathematics with applications to population increase, finding the square root of a number, chaos theory, and fractals. Sample problems from Chapter 8 (Solving Equations and Iteration) of Don
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 Continuing Studies and Corporate Education  University of Massachusetts Lowell
The UMass Dartmouth and UMass Lowell Divisions of Continuing Education offer a selection of standard, fullcredit university courses offered over the web. Students and faculty use the World Wide Web, email, chat and other Internet resources to review
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 Continuous Nowhere Differentiable Function  Michal Wojcik
A proof of the existence of a continuous function f:[0,1]>[0,1] that is nowhere differentiable. This proof uses the Banach Contraction Principle.
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 Contour plots with trigonometric functions  Eric Weeks
A method of making interesting nonmoiré patterns. See also his pages on Lissajou figures, Polar Flowers, and Spiral triangles.
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 Contradancing and Matrices  Ivars Peterson (MathLand)
Bernie Scanlon, a mathematics instructor at Bakersfield College in California, has been dancing nearly every weekend since 1990, even traveling to distant parts of the country to join in the fun. His passion is contradancing  a dance form unknown to
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 Contributions of 20th Century Women to Physics  Nina Byers; Department of Physics & Astronomy, University of California at Los Angeles
A searchable archive of data on 86 twentieth century women who have made original and important contributions to physics, including to the field of mathematical physics. Graphics include an annotated photo gallery and a poster montage of famous females
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 Conversation about A Beautiful Mind, with Sylvia Nasar and Dave Bayer  archived by the Commonwealth Club of California
A conversation with Sylvia Nasar (biographer of John Nash) and
Dave Bayer (math consultant on A Beautiful Mind). Streaming audio
of event sponsored by MSRI that took place May 2002.
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 Conversion Factors  Washington State Department of Transportation
Conversion tables between U.S. customary units and SI (International System) units. The proper conversion procedure is to multiply the specified value on the left (primarily U.S. customary values) by the conversion factor exactly as given below and then
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 ConvertAuto.com  Lilly Hammond
JavaScript calclulators for instant online conversions: angles; area; cooking, such as teaspoons (tsp) and quarts (qts); foreign currencies; density; energy; force; frequency; fuel economy, such as miles per gallon (mpg); length; power; pressure; speed;
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 Convex and Discrete Geometry  Dave Rusin; The Mathematical Atlas
Information on convex and discrete geometry. Applications and related fields and subfields; textbooks, reference works, and tutorials; software and tables; other web sites with this focus.
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 Convex Hull Algorithms  Tim Lambert
An applet that demonstrates some algorithms for computing the convex hull of points in three dimensions. See the points from different viewpoints; see how the Incremental algorithm constructs the hull, face by face; while it's playing, look at it from
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 coolmath.com: Cool Math  Karen
A searchable "amusement park of mathematics" for exploring math: functions, tessellations, polyhedra, limits, logs, fractals (with galleries), puzzles and problems, fun with numbers, how to succeed in math, careers in math. Also Cool Links for Math for
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 Cool Math Guy  Dana Mosely
Watch math lessons delivered by a video instructor for several textbook publishers. Topics range from arithmetic to several variable calculus, and include review for the standardized tests such as the SAT and ACT. Also, play games that involve matching,
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 Cooperative Two Person Generalized (NonZero) Sum Game  Elmer G. Wiens; Egwald Web Services Ltd.
This article uses John Nash's theory to solve the "Battle of the Sexes" twoperson cooperative (bargaining) game. It discusses such key concepts as the negotiation set, threat strategies, the Nash function, the negotiated settlement, and the payoff tradeoff
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 Coping With Math Anxiety  B. Sidney Smith, Wendy Hageman Smith; Math Academy Online/Platonic Realms
A "minitext" concerning the potentially disabling fear of math. This site defines math anxiety, discusses its social and educational roots, addresses some widespread myths about math and learning math, and deals with possible strategies for overcoming
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 Core Concept: Comprehensive Assessment  Edutopia
The George Lucas Educational Foundation's compilation of resources on assessment in education, including videos, reallife examples, blog posts, articles, and interviews.
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 Corner for Interactive Geometry Software (CIGS)  The Math Forum
The main Math Forum page for resources devoted to the support of teaching with geometry software, especially dynamic, interactive software such as Cabri Geometry and the Geometer's Sketchpad. Instructional activities and lessons to read on the Web or
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 Cotton Expressions Science and Math TShirts  Cotton Expressions, Ltd.
Science and mathematical tshirts currently sold to museums and college bookstores worldwide.
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 Counterexamples in Clifford Algebras  Pertti Lounesto, Helsinki Institute of Technology
Counterexamples to theorems published and proved in recent literature on Clifford algebras, spinors, spin groups and the exterior algebra, many stemming from the failure of the authors to check their statements in low dimensions, or for small numbers
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 The Counterfeit Coin  Ivars Peterson (MathTrek)
The classic puzzle of the counterfeit coin has long served as a stiff test of one's reasoning power and ingenuity. In its standard form, the problem concerns 12 coins identical in size, shape, and appearance. One coin, however, is counterfeit, having
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 Counting by Twos  Ivars Peterson (MathTrek)
How much is a megabyte? Many people don't really know. The problem originated decades ago when computer professionals noticed that 2^10 is very nearly equal to 1,000, and they began using the metric prefix "kilo" to mean 1,024. That was okay when computers
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 Counting Hamilton Cycles in Product Graphs  Frans Faase
Exploration of Hamilton paths through a program which draws a snake that starts at one place in a box, and then extends itself until it cannot go further, after which it shrinks again, to seek another path. The author coded these snake programs in Fortran,
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 Counting Triangles  Interactive Mathematics Miscellany and Puzzles, Alexander Bogomolny
Division of a square by evenly spaced lines parallel to its sides yields a number of small squares which is clearly square. Interestingly, the same is true for a triangle divided by evenly spaced lines parallel to its sides. The page contains a dynamic
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 A Course in Homological Algebra  E. Lee Lady; University of Hawaii
A collection of graduate course notes. Files are in PDF and DVI formats. Contents include: tor, flatness, and purity; syzygies, projective dimension and global dimension; Gorenstein rings and modules; Auslander's proof of Roiter's Theorem; and a list
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 Course Materials Online  College of Education, San Diego State University
Courses online in Administration, Rehabilitation and Postsecondary Education; Education; Educational Technology, including multimedia development and distance education. Also humanistic and social aspects of teaching, from the School of Teacher Education.
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 Course Notes  J. S. Milne
Full course notes in dvi, pdf, and postscript formats for all the advanced courses J. S. Milne taught at the University of Michigan between 1986 and 1999: Group Theory; Fields and Galois Theory; Algebraic Number Theory; Class Field Theory; Modular Functions
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 Course Project Suggestions (Geometry and the Imagination)  Conway, Doyle, Gilman, Thurston; The Geometry Center
An list of suggestions for projects in geometry, topology, symmetry, making geometric solids, calendars, spherical and hyperbolic trigonometry, puzzles, models, etc. Projects were to be exhibited at the Geometry Fair at the end of the course.
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 Courses I Teach  John Cosgrave; St. Patrick's College, Dublin, Ireland
Lecture notes from three courses given at St Patrick's College, Dublin: Maple/Calculus/Analysis; Number Theory; Number Theory and Cryptography.
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 Covering and Packing (The Geometry Junkyard)  David Eppstein, Theory Group, ICS, UC Irvine
An extensive annotated list of links to material on covering and packing problems.
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 Covering Up (MatheMUSEments!)  Ivars Peterson (Math Muse for Kids)
Have you ever wondered why the cover of a manhole is nearly always round? Why couldn't it be oval or square? The usual answer is that a circular lid, unlike a square or an oval cover, won't fall through the opening, but the circle isn't the only shape
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 The Cow in the Classroom  Ivars Peterson (MathLand)
Math Curse by Jon Scieszka and Lane Smith spoofs the types of word problems that educators and textbook writers invent to dress up arithmetic exercises and, supposedly, to demonstrate the relevance of math to everyday life. Canadian economist and humorist
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 CPAIOR 2001: Third International Workshop
Third International Workshop on Integration of Artificial Intelligence and Operations Research Techniques in Constraint Programming for Combinatorial Optimization Problems. Wye College (Imperial College), Ashford, Kent UK; 810 April, 2001. Papers available
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 C Program Math Functions  Dave Norman
Examples of C coding for some maths problems. Current functions are atan
(double x), cos (double x), and sin (double x).
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 Cracking a Medieval Code  Ivars Peterson (MathTrek)
The first printed book on cryptology was written by Johannes Trithemius (14621516), an abbot in Spanheim, Germany, who was one of the leading intellectuals of his day. Bearing the title Polygraphiae libri sex ("Six Books of Polygraphy"), it was published
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 Cracking Kepler's spherepacking problem  Ivars Peterson; Science News Online
The familiar piles of neatly stacked oranges at a supermarket represent a practical solution to the problem of packing spheres as tightly as possible. Thomas C. Hales proved that no other arrangement of identical spheres fills space more efficiently,
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 Cracking the Myth of Ball Control  Ivars Peterson (MathLand)
Ball control has become common practice in a number of sports. In basketball, for example, coaches often urge their teams to slow down a game at certain times or to control its tempo. In professional football, "time of possession" has become a statistic
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 Crackpot Index  John Baez
A fun site which outlines how you can tell if a new theory is really from a "crackpot."
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 Crafty Puzzles  James Cole, The Crafty Puzzles Company
A U.K. establishment selling wooden puzzles of all sorts: jigsaw puzzles, puzzle boxes, brain teasers, models, and functional pieces.
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 A Craps Tutorial  Odds, Probability, and House Edge  Gayle Tellis
Intended to help students and teachers of math learn how to convert odds to probability (and viceversa) and to compute house edge of simple games such as craps and roulette. Includes a section on the rules as well.
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 A Crash Course in Symbolic Logic  D.J. Brasier; Math Forum, Ask Dr. Math FAQ
Is symbolic logic so hard that some people will just never be able to get it? In a gentle introduction to the notation and rules of derivation used in symbolic logic, Dr. Achilles shows why the answer to that question is 'No'.
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 A Crash Course in the Mathematics of Infinite Sets  Peter Suber; Philosophy Department, Earlham College
An introductory guide for philosophers, explaining the use of infinitary set theory.
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