 PaperFoldingFractals  Joel Castellanos, Rice University
A classroom teaching or personal learning software tool for Windows that can be an introductory lesson to fractals. Simple, stepbystep processes of paper folding can give rise to infinite verities of fractals. The user learns what fractals are and how
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 Paper Models of Polyhedra  Gijs Korthals Altes
Dozens of paper models of polyhedra: Platonic and Archimedean solids, compounds, caleidocyli, and more. Print the images, cut, and glue them together, or download the models in zipped CorelDraw or GIF format.
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 Papers  A. R. D. Mathias
Downloadable papers in DVI PostScript format: a piece on Bourbaki; a piece on Stalin; a long piece on Mac Lane set theory; a short piece on Zermelo set theory; a recent piece on Strong Statements of Analysis; and three other papers, appdyn97, delays97
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 Papers  Chaim GoodmanStrauss, Dept. of Mathematics, Univ. of Arkansas
On Composite Twisted Unknots; Matching Rules and Substitution Tilings; Aperiodic Hierarchical Tilings; Bounding the Results of Arithmetic Operations on Random Variables with Unknown Dependency; A Small Set of Planar Aperiodic Tiles; A Pair of Aperiodic
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 Papers on Riemannian Geometry  Alan Weinstein
Papers written by graduate students in the course Math 240, Riemannian Geometry, in the Spring Semester of 1995 at the Univ. of California at Berkeley. Each paper is either a survey of an area or a tutorial essay in a topic related to riemannian geometry.
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 Papers on the History of Mathematics  Gregory Cherlin, Rutgers University
A random selection of term papers submitted in undergraduate, onesemester courses on the history of mathematics. Topics include zero, Fermat, Euler, Newton, Euclid's proof of the Pythagorean Theorem, Fibonacci, Vieta, conic sections, mathematics at Princeton
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 Parallel Applications in Statistics and Economics (PASE)
Announcements of meetings, previous PASE workshops and where conference proceedings are published. Subjects: parallel algorithms and artificial neural networks; dynamical chaotic systems and fuzzy logic; stochastic optimization concepts; genetic algorithms
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 Parallel Coordinates  Alfred Inselberg
Download articles, read a course syllabus, and see images about a method for visualizing multidimensional spaces with industry applications that have included visual and automatic (classification) data mining, optimization, GIS, process control, decision
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 Parcelles d'infiniPromenade au jardin d'Escher  Alain Nicolas
Book in French, largely composed of pictures, on methods of figurative tiling. Site includes links to related sites in French and English.
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 Partial Differential Equations  Dave Rusin; The Mathematical Atlas
A short article designed to provide an introduction to partial differential equations. Like ordinary differential equations, partial differential equations are equations to be solved in which the unknown element is a function, but in PDEs the function
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 PartsLibrary.com
A CAD resource with a large SolidWorks parts library. Access is reserved for registered PartsLibrary environment users.
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 Party Games  Ivars Peterson (MathTrek)
You're one of six people at a dinner party. You would undoubtedly find that the dinner party includes either a group of at least three people who all know one another or a group of at least three people who don't know one another. The reason for this
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 PASCALC.com  Pascal C.
A Webbased calculator with output printed linebyline on the screen. You can pass series of calculations on to your peers by sending a link. Note: the link is not encrypted, and you might consider something like tinyurl.com to shorten the link.
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 Pascal's Fractals  Ivars Peterson (MathLand)
It's possible to convert Pascal's triangle into eyecatching geometric forms. For example, one can replace the odd coefficients with 1 and even coefficients with 0. Continuing the pattern for many rows reveals an everenlarging host of triangles, of varying
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 Pascal's Triangle from Top to Bottom  Matthew Hubbard and Tom Roby
A comprehensive resource for the study of Pascal's Triangle. The section "Applications" addresses questions such as "What types of questions are answered by the binomial coefficients?" and "What number greater than 1 shows up most often in Pascal's Triangle?"
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 Pascal's Triangle using Clock Arithmetic  Jay's Corner
Exploring Pascal's triangle when the modulus is a prime; when the modulus is a power of a prime; and when the modulus has at least two different prime divisors. From mod 2 to mod 12, illustrated. (See also Part II.)
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 Pascal Triangle Applet  Sergey Butkevich
An applet that graphically presents Pascal's triangle modulo an integer number p; i.e. it computes the binomial coefficients. It can draw triangles with up to 650 rows with a p value between 2 and 30,000 (though it's not very clear above 15,000). The
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 Passalgebra.com
Pass algebra with this online study guide. Practice with hundreds of problems, with answers worked out step by step. Examples of study guide and exercises provided. $27 for 1 year; stepbystep instruction for $2.50/problem.
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 Pass Calculus  Le Site PassCalculus.com
Calculus question solution service. Solutions offered via email, phone, or fax; quotes are free; payment by credit card. Sample solutions and FAQ online.
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 A Passion for Pi  Ivars Peterson (MathLand)
Some of you may be familiar with the sentence: How I want a drink, alcoholic of course, after the heavy lectures involving quantum mechanics! The number of letters in each word represents successive digits of pi: 3.14159265358979. How Simon Plouffe memorized
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 Pasta by Design  George L. Legendre
Photos of architect Legendre's 2011 book by the same title. Pasta by Design provides an illustrated taxonomy of over 90 forms of pasta, along with the mathematical formulae, descriptions of special attributes, and advice on specific cooking uses for each
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 Past Lectures  Gresham College
Dozens of video lectures by Robin Wilson, Gresham Professor of Geometry and former Visiting Professor in the History of Mathematics: "The Great Mathematicians," "Early Mathematics Day," "Lewis Carroll in Numberland," "Topics in the History of Financial
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 Path Puzzles  Erich's Puzzle Palace; Erich Friedman
Sixteen paththroughagrid puzzles; can you fill in the correct path? Answers provided.
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 Pathways to Science  Institute for Broadening Participation
Programs such as undergraduate summer research opportunities, graduate fellowships, postdoctoral positions, as well as resources and materials pertaining to recruitment, retention, mentoring, and funding of underrepresented groups on pathways to science,
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 Pattern  Drew, Wallace; Mathematics Across the Curriculum, Dartmouth College
An interdisciplinary course in textile design and elementary group theory. Syllabus, course pages (notes, figures, questions, group work and homework), final project and class artworks from a 1996 math and art crosscurricular class at Dartmouth College.
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 Pattern Recognition Student Projects, 1997  Godfried Toussaint, McGill University
A variety of student projects: papers presented on the Web, many with Java applets. Topics include: Skeletonization Algorithm of Hilditch; Alpha Shapes; Didier KMeans Algorithm; The MIT Reading Machine for the Blind; Distance Transforms; Midpoint Smoothing;
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 Patterns and Magic Squares  Recmath
This page looks at a particular subset of Magic Squares, those of order four which are 'continuous' (also known as pandiagonal, Nasik and Jaina). It explores the patterns possible when the numbers in these kinds of squares are
represented by a set of
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 Patterns of physical change  Phil Henshaw
Focuses on the use of tools such as derivative reconstruction (DR) to measure growth and changes in a system. Includes: a short paper "Is the basis of change evolutionary?"; a description of the theory of derivative reconstruction as a method of analyzing
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 Pat Thompson's Home Page  Patrick W. Thompson
Research on students' development of algebra and calculus ideas in grades 316, on the nature of multiplicative reasoning and its role in learning sophisticated mathematical ideas, and on teaching and learning statistical and probabilistic reasoning.
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 Paul Erdos: An Infinity of Problems  Ivars Peterson (MathLand)
Paul Erdos died of a heart attack on Sept. 20 [1996] at the age of 83. Considered by many as one of the great mathematicians of this century and certainly one of the most prolific ever, he will be missed. For more than 50 years, Erdos wandered the globe
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 Paul's Online Math Notes and Tutorials  Paul Dawkins, Lamar University
Online notes and tutorials on algebra, calculus, and differential equations. Also, PDFs, some reduced to fit onto one printed page, offering a review of algebra and trigonometry, a primer of complex numbers, listing common math errors, suggesting how
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 Paul's Page of Pi  Paul A. Gusmorino 3rd
Most of the content of this site is focused on methods of calculating pi: Archimedes' method; Wallis' formula; Gregory, Leibniz, and Machin; Newton's fluxions; and Paul's 8192 digits. Also Pi Poems, Music of Pi, and Pi Links.
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 paulus gerdes's Storefront  Paulus Gerdes
Purchase print editions or download Gerdes' titles, some also available in Portuguese, Dutch, and French: Drawings from Angola: Living Mathematics, Enjoy Puzzling with biLLies, Puzzle Fun with BiLLies, The Bisos Game: Puzzles and Diversions, Introducing
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 Pavilion of Polyhedreality  George W. Hart
A page of images of polyhedra from the author of Multidimensional Analysis and the Encyclopedia of Polyhedra. Constructions from wood, paper, paper clips, pencils, food and forks. The is also an extensive linked list of other Web pages related to polyhedra
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 PAX Puzzle  PAX Puzzle
Wooden puzzles, rope puzzles, puzzles boxes, and board games for sale. Recommendations and gift sets available.
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 Payoff Calculator  www.payoffcalculator.info
Financial calculators for finding out how long payments will take to pay off a loan, mortgage, or car loan. These payoff calculators also estimate how much you can save by adding extra contributions to your payments.
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 PC Calc
Calculator program for Windows 2000/XP. Offers calculations, graphing, matrices, steps in solving equations, and more. Features listed and a free 30day demo is available on the site.
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 PCMI@MathForum  Suzanne Alejandre, Jim King
An overview and, in some cases, details of the working groups, schedules, and projects from each summer session: Research Program, Graduate Summer School, Undergraduate Program, Mathematics Education Research Program, Undergraduate Faculty Program, High
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 PCS Edventures  PCS Edventures!.com, Inc.
Education company with a product line ranging from handson learning labs in technologyrich subjects like engineering, science, math, robotics, IT, and electronics to administrative tools designed to help schools manage the enormous amounts of data required
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 Pédagogie Mathématiques  Académie de Rennes
De nombreux documents pédagogiques (du collège au BTS), des jeux ainsi que d'excellents exemples d'utilisation des T.I.C.E. (technologies de l'information et de communication pour l'enseignement) des maths.
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 PDEase2D  Macsyma Inc.
PDEase solves a range of nonlinear problems in heat transfer, solid mechanics, fluid mechanics, groundwater flow, electromagnetics, chemical reaction diffusion, and quantum mechanics. It simplifies finite element analysis with automatic gridding, automated
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 PDK Poster Project  Pamela Davis Kivelson
"Using Visual Means to Challenge Stereotypes." Posters for scientific literacy, humanizing the image of research science and scientists, and increasing the number of women and girls who choose to pursue and maintain careers in the physical sciences and
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 Peanut Software for Windows  Rick Parris
Abstracts and links for downloading free mathematics software: Wingeom (highprecision geometric constructions); Winplot (generalpurpose plotting utility); Winstats (scatter plots, curve fitting, histograms, statistical data, and standard theoretical
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 PearlQuiz  Web Pearls Inc.
A math quizauthoring system in three parts: an application platform that manages databases and computational engines; a server of HTML and JSP pages; and an author application for writing, editing, and publishing quizzes. Question types include true/false,
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 Pedagogy Articles  Schiller
Translations of papers by G.W. Leibniz on the catenary (or funicular curve) and by Gauss on the Fundamental Theorem of Algebra.
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 Peek: Ndimensional polytope visualization by crosssection and projection  Gordon Kindlmann
A program to explore higher dimensional objects interactively through the use of crosssections and projections. The goal is for the user to gain some intuition about higherdimensional geometry. Projective views and 3dimensional crosssections of hypercubes.
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 Pell's equation
 MacTutor Math History Archives
Linked essay on the indeterminate quadratic equation. With references and other related web sites.
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 Pennies in a Tray  Ivars Peterson (MathLand)
What's the largest number of pennies that you can pack inside a circular tray to form a carpet of nonoverlapping coins? What about inside a square or triangular tray? What if you could expand or contract the size of all your pennies to fit a required
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 Penn State University Mathematics Department
Course home pages and instructional material; seminars, colloquia, and conferences; and subject area pages for Penn State research centers, with preprints and links to other resources on the Web: Algebra and Number Theory; Dynamical Systems; Mathematical
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 A Penny Surprise  Ivars Peterson (MathTrek)
Flipping a coin in the air, catching it, then determining whether it has come up heads or tails is to many people a prototypical random process. In some sense, however, coin tossing isn't really random at all. A mechanical gadget can flip a properly positioned
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