 "Average" Temperature (Math Chat)  Frank Morgan, MAA Online
Answering the challenge: The National Weather Service approximates the daily average temperature by the average of the daily high and low temperatures. Why is this such a good approximation? Mathematically, the approximation is good because Earth's warming
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 Averting Instant Insanity  Ivars Peterson (MathTrek)
Once called "The Great Tantalizer," the puzzle looks innocuous and sounds quite simple. It consists of a set of four cubes with one of four colors on each of their six faces. Your goal is to arrange the four cubes in a row so that all four colors appear
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 The Awari Oracle  John Romein
Play the ancient African "count and capture" strategy board game, related to mancala, and also known as wari, awale, oware, or ayo. Dutch computer scientists from Amsterdam's Vrije Universiteit developed a program that computes the best move and eventual
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 AwesomeTutors.com
Las Vegasbased oneonone tutoring service, with email, webcam and phone tutoring available for most tutoring subjects. Prepayment required.
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 The Axiom of Choice (AC)  Eric Schechter; Vanderbilt University
An introduction to and some implications of perhaps the last great controversy of mathematics, the Axiom of Choice, now a basic assumption used in many parts of mathematics. With a collection of annotated links to relevant sites: Introductory/elementary;
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 Azulejos Que Ensinam  Museu Nacional de Machado de Castro
Catálago sobre uma coleção de azulejos que mostram Os Elementos de Euclides e otras figuras de matemáticas.
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 Babylonian numerals  MacTutor Math History Archives
Linked essay exploring the development of the Babylonians' number system, with ideas inherited from the Sumerians and the Akkadians. From them came base 60, or the sexagesimal system, but neither the Sumerian nor the Akkadian system was a positional system
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 The Bakhshali manuscript  MacTutor Math History Archives
Linked essay on the discovery and history of an early mathematical manuscript. The Bakhshali Manuscript is a mathematical work written on birch bark, found in the summer of 1881 near the village Bakhshali in Mardan tahsil, 50 miles from the city of Peshawar
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 Balducci's Actuarial Home Page  David P.M. Scollnik; Dept. of Mathematics and Statistics, Univ. of Calgary
Links to popular actuarial resources: Balducci's List of Actuarial, Risk, and Insurance Links; Actuaries ( with Home Pages ) on the Web; Actuarial Programs in Academia; Actuarial ( Statistical ) Research Papers. Also information relating to actuarial
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 Balducci's Actuarial Home Page  D. Scollnik, Dept. of Mathematics & Statistics, Univ. of Calgary
From the Division of Statistics and Actuarial Science. Actuarial announcements; Preprints; Researchers; Faculty; Undergraduate offerings.
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 Banach Spaces Bulletin Board  Mathematics Dept., Oklahoma State University
Links to preprints of papers in Banach space theory and related fields and archives of messages that have been sent to all subscribers to the associated list. In addition, the Recent section lists the most recent papers that have been added to the archive.
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 Banxia Software
Software for professional decision making. Frontier Analyst provides Data Envelopment Analysis to measure an organization's efficiency. Decision Explorer lets you create maps to model a situation and develop a strategy.
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 Barcode Encoding  Interactive Mathematics Miscellany and Puzzles, Alexander Bogomolny
Barcodes are used with various encodings all over the world to simplify product identification, especially in retail. The site explains the most popular encodings, like UPC (Universal Product Code), ISBN (Intenational Standard Book Number), and EAN13
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 Barry G. Adams
Barry Adams is a professor of mathematics and computer science at Laurentian University in Ontario, Canada. His website includes many Java applets, including elementary numerical methods (i.e. Newton's Method), various examples of chaotic attractors,
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 Bartlett Corrections  F. CribariNeto
Introduction to and compilation of resources on Bartlett corrections: scalar transformations "applied to the likelihood ratio (LR) statistic that yields a new, improved test statistic which has a chisquared null distribution to order O(1/n). This represents
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 Base Considerations  Keith Devlin (Devlin's Angle)
A discussion of base systems, including negative bases, used in computers. "We are so used to computers nowadays that it seems obvious that computer arithmetic should be performed in a binary fashion. After all, this is the most natural form for a computer,
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 Base Conversion Routine  David Cronin
This is a Javascript base conversion program for bases 2 through 36. The author writes: "Feel free to make use of it. It's limited only by the precision of enviroment runtime."
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 Base Converter  Interactive Mathematics Miscellany and Puzzles, Alexander Bogomolny
A fairly highlevel introduction to binary and other base systems, with a Java converter and links to related pages including: arithmetic operations in various bases, algorithmic conversion procedure, linguistic fun with base 36, Napier bones, abacus,
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 Basic Books on Rings and Modules  E. Lee Lady, University of Hawaii
An annotated list (about 15 books) in the following categories: General Theory of Rings and Modules; Classical Theory of Artinian Rings; and Commutative Rings.
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 Basic Concepts in Nonlinear Dynamics and Chaos  Keith Clayton
An introduction to chaos, dynamic systems, and fractals, with a glossary of important terms.
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 Basic Geometry of Voting  Donald G. Saari
A book that offers a large number of new results about voting theory, its emphasis purposely placed on three candidate settings so that the book can be read by almost everyone. (With four or more candidates, the results need more advanced mathematical
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 Basic Ideas in Greek Mathematics  Michael Fowler; University of Virginia
Lecture notes from a course entitled "Galileo and Einstein." Nailing down the square root of 2. Zeno's paradoxes: Achilles and the tortoise. Proving an arrow can never move  analyzing motion, the beginning of calculus. How Archimedes calculated Pi to
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 Basic Linear Algebra Subroutines (BLAS)
Routines that provide standard building blocks for performing basic vector and matrix operations. The Level 1 BLAS perform scalar, vector and vectorvector operations, the Level 2 BLAS perform matrixvector operations, and the Level 3 BLAS perform matrixmatrix
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 Basic Math Concepts and Fundamentals  R. H. Logan
A series of readings and practice problem activities designed to alleviate "math anxiety," for those planning to take a science course but uncertain about the math preparation. Includes lessons and practice problems. The topics covered are especially
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 Basic Skills Resources  National Institute for Literacy
The Basic Skills Resource Collection focuses on reading, writing, mathematics and numeracy resources that can improve instruction in basic skills. Each resource listing features an abstract and a review by an expert in the field. Resources in this Collection
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 Basics of Computational Number Theory  Robert Campbell
An introduction to computational number theory, beginning with a quick overview of arithmetic in the modular integers. Throughout, the paper emphasizes computation and practical results rather than delving into the why. Simple programs, generally in JavaScript,
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 The Basics of MRI  Joseph P. Hornak; Rochester Institute of Technology
An introduction to magnetic resonance imagining, which is based on the principles of nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), a spectroscopic technique used by scientists to obtain microscopic chemical and physical information about molecules. See, in particular,
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 Basic TI82 Tutorial  University of Illinois at UrbanaChampaign
An online interactive tutorial that starts from scratch with turning on the TI82 calculator and takes you through the basic steps needed to do arithmetic and function evaluation and to enter, graph, and tabulate functions. You use a TI82 as you view
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 Basic TI92 Tutorial  University of Illinois at UrbanaChampaign
An online interactive tutorial updated for the new TI92 layouts and commands. It begins with turning on the TI92 calculator and proceeds through the basic steps needed to do arithmetic and finally to entering, graphing and and tabulating functions.
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 The Bath Wavelet Warehouse  Signal and Image Processing Group, Univ. of Bath, U.K.
A collection of wavelet filters available for download. Biorthogonal Wavelets; Orthonormal Wavelets; References.
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 Battleship Puzzles  Erich's Puzzle Palace; Erich Friedman
There are five 3 x 1 ships hidden in each puzzle grid, each ship with a different number from 1 to 5. The numbers at the sides of the grid give the sum of the numbers on all the ships in that row or column. Ten puzzles, with answers provided.
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 Bayesian Networks Tutorial  Santos, Benslay; University of Connecticut
Introductory material on Bayesian networks and the probabilities involved, with a Bayesian Networks Bibliography of resources for Computational Complexity; Fielded Systems; General References, Tutorials, and Surveys; Knowledge Engineering and Maintenance;
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 The Beal Conjecture
About Beal's conjecture and the prize offered for the proof or disproof of this important number theory relation.
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 Be An Actuary  The Casualty Actuarial Society and the Society of Actuaries
A site on actuarial careers, created and maintained by the Casualty Actuarial Society (CAS) and the Society of Actuaries (SOA). Information on skills and talents needed for an actuarial career; what classes will best prepare you; what to expect on the
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 The Beauty of Chaos  Uwe Krüger
A database of over 500 pictures of the Mandelbrot set. Also links to a CDROM and other fractal image sites.
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 Bee Alert  University of Montana
Bees and portable computers can now be used to assess environmental hazards through the development of electronic hives, toxicological models, extensive databases, and patternrecognizing software that help assess risks posed by metals, radiation, carcinogenic
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 Beeneet Kothari Wins First $1000 National High School Calculus Student Award (Math Chat)  Frank Morgan, MAA Online
Beeneet Kothari of Half Hollow Hills High School West, Long Island, has been awarded the first $1000 National High School Calculus Student Award by ecalculus.org, based at the University of California at Davis and Williams College. In ninth grade he wrote
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 ... Before This Decade Is Out ...  Keith Devlin (Devlin's Angle)
With four thousand professionally active mathematicians gathered together, the January Joint Meeting provides an opportunity to check the pulse of the US mathematical community and to look for any significant new trends... "Make the preparation of K12
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 The Beginnings of Set Theory  MacTutor Math History Archives
Linked essay describing the rise of set theory from Cantor (with discussion of earlier contributions) through the first half of the 20th century, with another web site and 25 references (books/articles).
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 Behavioural Calculus  Orfeo Bernardo
Behavioural Calculus with Analytical and Visual 3Space, designed for Windows 98 or better. Site also includes promotional freeware; registration required. If site does not load, try using Internet Explorer.
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 Behind the Numbers  Jonathan Sills; ESPN SportsZone
A monthly column that explores the gray area between math and sports and what happens when exact calculations meet the human, unpredictable factors that make sports so entertaining. A combinatoric and probabilistic analysis of changes in World Cup soccer
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 Belgian Mathematical Society (BMS)  Société Mathématique de Belgique  Belgisch Wiskundig Genootschap
The Belgian national mathematics society. Includes staff, conference details, preprint servers, archived newsletters, positions vacant in Belgium, and links to other mathematical servers in Europe.
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 Benchmarks for Optimization Software  Mittelmann, Spellucci
I: Several codes, one computer  linear and quadratic programming; quadratically constrained quadratic programming; geometric programming; boundconstrained nonlinear programming; nonlinear programming; largescale nonlinear system benchmark; benchmarks
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 Bending a Soccer BallMathematically  Michael Trott
With the World Cup under way, Michael Trott was asked by American Scientist magazine to help with some graphics to illustrate their feature article, "The Topology and Combinatorics of Soccer Balls," by Dieter Kotschick. Michael explains, "Using various
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 Benford's Law and Zipf's Law  Interactive Mathematics Miscellany and Puzzles, Alexander Bogomolny
With the eerie but uniform distribution of digits of randomly selected numbers, if the numbers under investigation are not entirely random but somehow socially or naturally related, the distribution of the first digit is not uniform. One may expect 1
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 BenfordWiz
Software that produces Benford numbers that obey Benford's Law. Hexagonal and octagonal numbers are also included in the data sets.
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 Benoit B. Mandelbrot  Computer Science Dept., Yale University
From the Yale University Computer Science Department's listing of Research and Academic Faculty. Prof. Mandelbrot joined the Yale faculty in 1987.
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 Benoit Fractal Analysis System  TriSoft International, Inc.
Windows fractal analysis software that enables you to measure the fractal dimension and/or Hurst exponent of data sets using a choice of method(s) for analysis of selfsimilar patterns and selfaffine traces. A white noise filter (Fourier or Wavelet)
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 ÜberFan  UberFan, LLC
"The fan's electronic baseball card," UberFan.com gives each fan ownership of Major League Baseball statistics by collecting them from the games he or she watches. Satisfy your curiosity for how many home runs you've seen your favorite batter hit, for
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 Bernhard Kutzler's Collection: Technology in Mathematics Education  Bernhard Kutzler
Read or download the author's articles: "Algebraic Calculators as Pedagogical Tools for Teaching Mathematics"; "Indispensable Manual Calculation Skills in a CAS Environment"; "TwoTier Exams as a Way to Let Technology in"; and "Interconnectivity  Derive
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