 Programming with Sets  Dept. of Computer Science, New Mexico State University
Using settheoretic primitives as a conceptual tool in programming. Includes a discussion of the SETL and MIRANDA languages. Setoriented programming means thinking and designing programs with set data abstractions in mind, trying to really exploit all
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 Programs  Eight Queens / Knight's Tour  Prashant
Programs for implementing some popular algorithms from graph theory, including programs for solving Eight Queens / Knight's Tour, using Heuristics.
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 A Progression of Primes  Ivars Peterson (MathTrek)
Searches for patterns among prime numbers  whole numbers exactly divisible only by themselves and one  have long served as stiff tests of the ingenuity and perseverance of mathematicians. In recent years, the use of computers has brought a steady stream
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 ProjectBased Instruction in Mathematics for the Liberal Arts  M. B. Ulmer; University of South Carolina at Spartanburg
Information and activities/projects for a complete projectbased postalgebra course for liberal arts majors, also suitable for use with high school courses following algebra. Activities are in PDF format.
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 Project Based Learning Pathways  David Graser
A blog about real life projects suitable for college math courses such as algebra, finite math, and business calculus. Most of these applied math projects include handouts, videos, and other resources for students, as well as a project letter. Graser,
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 Project CALC: Calculus as a Laboratory Course  Lawrence C. Moore and David A. Smith, Duke University
An NSFfunded curriculum development project that has produced materials for a threesemester reform calculus course emphasizing realworld problems, handson activities, discovery learning, writing and revision of writing, teamwork, intelligent use of
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 Project Euclid  Cornell University Library
Project Euclid seeks to "advance scholarly communication in the field of theoretical and applied mathematics and statistics." Access and distribution plans for journal fulltext content include fulltext searching, reference linking, interoperability
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 Project Euler  Colin Hughes
Browse hundreds of challenging problems that require mathematical insights as well as computer and programming skills to solve. Popular puzzles include "Add all the natural numbers below one thousand that are multiples of 3 or 5," "By considering the
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 project Eureka
project Eureka is a collaboratively edited site for problem solvers/creators—regardless of problem or field. Add problems with quantifiable results; or group problems in a test.
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 Project Hermite  Shayne Waldron
Because bounding the error in Hermite interpolation in terms of the derivative which kills the interpolating space is of interest in numerical analysis and in the analysis of ordinary differential equations, there is an extensive literature on the subject.
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 Projectile Dynamics in Sport  Colin White
Treatise of a range of sports equipment. Authored by a Principal Lecturer at the University of Portsmouth, Projectile Dynamics in Sport begins with a mathematical treatment of the general principles of flight, examining balls, discusses, javelins, shot
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 Projective Conics (Gallery of Interactive Geometry)  Mathew Frank; The Geometry Center
This discussion of Pascal's theorem in terms of projective geometry includes an interactive application that lets you specify points on a conic and see how the theorem applies to them. Conics and Hexagons: Pascal's Theorem; Brianchon's Theorem; Some Stronger
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 Projective geometry and transformations  Albert Goodman; Deakin University (Rusden), Clayton, Victoria, Australia
Applications of projective geometry and transformations for computer graphics. 2D projection and coordinate systems; and transformations. From a course in Computer Graphics and Imaging.
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 Project List  Thomas Banchoff
Projects: a remake of The Flat Torus in the ThreeSphere, a film originally created in 1968; "Complex Function Graphs"; selflinking of curves on the 3sphere; "Monge and Desargues, Identified" (requires the Geometer's Sketchpad); a "sketchpad" for spherical
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 Project Muse  Johns Hopkins University Press
Worldwide networked subscription access to the full text of the Johns Hopkins University Press's 40+ scholarly journals in the humanities, social sciences, and mathematics. Search for Mathematics, or browse the American Journal of Mathematics.
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 Project NExT: New Experiences in Teaching  MAA, Exxon
Project NExT (New Experiences in Teaching) is a program for new or recent Ph.D.s in the mathematical sciences who are interested in improving the teaching and learning of undergraduate mathematics. See, in particular, Classroom Materials: Writing Intensive
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 Project Poison Applet  Computer Science Dept., Trinity College Dublin
A site created by firstyear computer science students as a Java programming project. Each of 12 topics (Algebra; Geometry; Trigonometry; Calculus; Matrices; Sequences & Series; Complex Numbers; Vectors; Probability; Groups; Further Calculus; Further
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 Project Search: Math  Buck Institute for Education
Dozens of studies and summaries of research on project based learning (PBL) in math. The Buck Institute for Education (BIE) is creates and disseminates products, practices and knowledge for effective PBL.
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 The Projects of R. W. Gray  Robert W. Gray
Geometric coffee tables, an introduction to polyhedra and the jitterbug (a dynamic polyhedron) that draws on the golden ratio, a collection of notes with respect to R. Buckminster Fuller's work, photos of a dome frame Gray built with students at Oswego
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 Project Welcome (Web Educator's Library Collection of Mathematical Explorations)  MAA (Mathematical Association of America)
Interactive mathematical programs in a newly developed, Javabased interface.
Download online or offline versions of the player. Twenty lessons, with summaries, include "Best Linear Fit," "Limits of Functions," "Piecewise Functions," "Nonlinear Equations,"
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 Projet Folium
Folium est un ensemble organisé d'articles sur les mathématiques, du cours aux biographies de mathématiciens célèbres, en passant par les exos les plus classiques et les théorèmes les plus puissants. Articles
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 Projet PRISME  INRIA, Sophia Antipolis
Les activités du projet PRISME sont centrées sur la géométrie algorithmique et ses applications, et sur les aspects géométriques de la robotique. Les études sont motivées par les nombreux domaines
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 Promoting Engagement and Supporting Leadership Development:
Online Teacher Professional Development at the Math Forum  Wesley Shumar, Jason Silverman, & Troy P. Regis, Drexel University
PDFformat article. Abstract: Teacher professional development (TPD) in its current state is typically episodic, fragmented, and often not rewarding over the long haul. There is need for a more substantial and extensive core set of TPD experiences that
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 Pronunciation Guide to Mathematicians  Gary S. Stoudt, Mathematics Dept., Indiana Univ. of Pennsylvania
Pronunciations of the names of mathematicians frequently encountered by undergraduate students, with links to information about them in the MacTutor History of Mathematics archives. Note on Pronunciation: Not all of the phonetic pronunciation symbols
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 Proof  Mariotti, MariaAlessandra; and Pedemonte, Bettina, editors
Archives of the quarterly "international newsletter on the teaching and learning of mathematical proof." Articles have included "The effect of using Transparent PseudoProofs in Linear Algebra," "Beliefs and beyond: hows and whys in the teaching of proof,"
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 A Proof of the Full ShimuraTaniyamaWeil Conjecture  Henri Darmon
Download an article in PDFformat on the completion of the proof by Wiles, Breuil, Conrad, Diamond and Taylor.
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 A Proof of the Pythagorean Theorem by Liu Hui (third century A.D.)  Donald B. Wagner
Web version of an article which appeared in Historia mathematica, 1985, 12, pp. 713. Includes Chinese characters, which were not in the published version. Some statements here are no longer up to date, but the article has not been significantly modified.
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 A Proof of the Pythagorean Theorem  Isaac Reed
One of the most famous theorems in mathematics, the Pythagorean theorem has many proofs. Presented here is one that relies on Euclidean algebraic geometry and is thus beautifully simple.
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 Proofs in Mathematics  Interactive Mathematics Miscellany and Puzzles, Alexander Bogomolny
A discussion of the value of proofs in the classroom, followed by a collection of proofs classified as either simple or charming. Simple proofs: Number of vowels in a Lewis Carroll game; Pigeonhole Principle; Number of X's and O's; Coloring points in
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 Proofs Wiki  Brunner Nathan
A communitybased collection of definitions, proofs, and theorems. The Proofs Wiki composition interface supports LaTeX and tooltips.
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 Proofs Without Words  Cut the Knot!, Alexander Bogomolny
Martin Gardner wrote, "There is no more effective aid in understanding certain algebraic identities than a good diagram. One should, of course, know how to manipulate algebraic symbols to obtain proofs, but in many cases a dull proof can be supplemented
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 Proof Techniques (Analysis Webnotes)  John Lindsay Orr; Dept. of Mathematics & Statistics, Univ. of NebraskaLincoln
Techniques of writing proofs for: Showing two sets are equal; Showing a set is closed; How to show a sequence converges; and How to use a convergent sequence (to prove other things).
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 A Proof that e is Irrational  Isaac Reed
A proof by contradiction that relies on the expression of e as a power series.
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 A Proof That e is Transcendental  Travis Kidd
A proof by contradiction, adapted from Klein, Famous Problems (New York: Chelsea Publishing Company, 1962).
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 Proof: The Sum of Prime Twins is Divisible by 12  Mathematics Dept., College of Marin
Prime twins are prime numbers that are two numbers apart. For example 41 and 43 are prime twins. Can you PROVE that the sum of prime twins is divisible by 12?
(This proof doesn't work for the prime twins 3 and 5.)
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 ProofWiki  Matt Westwood
ProofWiki is an online compendium of mathematical proofs. Those interested in adding to the work are urged to create an account and contribute.
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 Properties of Dice  Klaus Mogensen
An essay on Proper Dice (illustrated) and Dice Roll Probabilities.
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 Prophet of Chaos  Ivars Peterson (MathTrek)
"'...it may happen that small differences in the initial conditions produce very great ones in the final phenomena. A small error in the former will produce an enormous error in the latter. Prediction becomes impossible, and we have the fortuitous phenomenon.'
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 À propos d'Alexandre Grothendieck  Eric Dumas
Une entrevue avec Jean Giraud, avec des références.
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 Proudnerd.com  Heather Sable
"For the selfassured nerd": humorous tshirts, long sleeve tshirts, women's tshirts, sweatshirts, hooded sweatshirts, boxer shorts, hats and caps, bags and backpacks, mugs and cups, mousepads, apparel for kids, babies, and toddlers, and more. Solve
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 The ProvenMath Project  Michal Ryszard Wojcik and Michal Stanislaw Wojcik
Proofs of the Fundamental Theorem of Algebra, the theorem about integration by change of variables for realvalued functions of nvariables, a derivation of Zorn's Lemma, and others. The site renders axioms and derives proofs using only ASCII characters.
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 PR Probability Theory (Front for the Mathematics ArXiv)  Univ. of California, Davis
Probability Theory preprints, from the U.C. Davis front end for the xxx.lanl.gov ePrint archive, a major site for mathematics preprints that has incorporated many formerly independent specialist archives. Search by keyword or browse by topic.
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 PseudoDifferential Operators  Mark S. Joshi; Cambridge University, UK
Lecture notes in postscript, PDF, and dvi formats covering a first year graduate course on pseudodifferential operators. The calculus on manifolds is developed and applied to prove propagation of singularities and the Hodge decomposition theorem. Problems
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 P.T. Chang
Articles by this math professor from the University of Alaska Anchorage's MatSu College include "The Ostentatious World of Algebra," "InService Training for the Math Teacher of the 21st Century," and "Retesting in a College Remedial Mathematics Course."
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 PTC: Product Lifecycle Management Software  Parametric Technology Corporation
PTC acquired MathSoft, developer of Mathcad and other software for math, science and engineering for business, research, academic and government markets. They also market Pro/ENGINEER, Windchill, Arbortext, ProductView, CoCreate, and InSight.
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 Publications and Research Tools (AMS)  American Mathematical Society
The AMS research and publishing services include MathSciNet and the AMS Electronic Journals. Research tools for mathematicians include Mathematical Reviews Author Lookup, Institution Codes and Addresses, Serials Abbreviations; the AMS Preprint Server,
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 Publications  Douglas N. Arnold; Institute for Mathematics and its Applications
Most of Arnold's papers written since the late 1980s are available in PostScript, TeX DVI or plaintext file format. The Ph.D. theses of students he has supervised are also online. Primary research interests center around numerical analysis, with an emphasis
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 Publications  J. F. Jardine; Mathematics Dept., Univ. of Western Ontario, Canada
On this page there are: a link to a full list of publications; a book subdirectory (Simplicial Homotopy Theory, by P. G. Goerss and J. F. Jardine); and abstracts of papers: A^1local symmetric spectra; Presheaves of symmetric spectra; A rigidity theorem
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 Public Understanding of Mathematics  Key Issues in Mathematics at the Math Forum
Links to organizations and articles that explore perceptions and assumptions nonmathematicians hold about mathematics and mathematicians.
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 Publishing and Journals  Dept. of Statistics, University of California at Los Angeles (UCLA)
Journals and book series edited by UCLA Statistics faculty, and/or distributed by UCLA Statistical Consulting. Journals: Evaluation Review; Journal of Educational and Behavioral Statistics; Journal of Multivariate Analysis; Journal of Statistical Software.
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