 Bending a Soccer BallMathematically  Michael Trott
With the World Cup under way, Michael Trott was asked by American Scientist magazine to help with some graphics to illustrate their feature article, "The Topology and Combinatorics of Soccer Balls," by Dieter Kotschick. Michael explains, "Using various
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 Benford's Law and Zipf's Law  Interactive Mathematics Miscellany and Puzzles, Alexander Bogomolny
With the eerie but uniform distribution of digits of randomly selected numbers, if the numbers under investigation are not entirely random but somehow socially or naturally related, the distribution of the first digit is not uniform. One may expect 1
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 BenfordWiz
Software that produces Benford numbers that obey Benford's Law. Hexagonal and octagonal numbers are also included in the data sets.
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 Benoit B. Mandelbrot  Computer Science Dept., Yale University
From the Yale University Computer Science Department's listing of Research and Academic Faculty. Prof. Mandelbrot joined the Yale faculty in 1987.
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 Benoit Fractal Analysis System  TriSoft International, Inc.
Windows fractal analysis software that enables you to measure the fractal dimension and/or Hurst exponent of data sets using a choice of method(s) for analysis of selfsimilar patterns and selfaffine traces. A white noise filter (Fourier or Wavelet)
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 ÜberFan  UberFan, LLC
"The fan's electronic baseball card," UberFan.com gives each fan ownership of Major League Baseball statistics by collecting them from the games he or she watches. Satisfy your curiosity for how many home runs you've seen your favorite batter hit, for
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 Bernhard Kutzler's Collection: Technology in Mathematics Education  Bernhard Kutzler
Read or download the author's articles: "Algebraic Calculators as Pedagogical Tools for Teaching Mathematics"; "Indispensable Manual Calculation Skills in a CAS Environment"; "TwoTier Exams as a Way to Let Technology in"; and "Interconnectivity  Derive
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 Bernoulli Society  Wilfrid Kendall
An autonomous section of the International Statistical Institute, based at Warwick University in England. Its object is the advancement of the sciences of probability (including the theory of stochastic processes) and mathematical statistics, and of their
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 Berrie's Statistics Page  Berrie Zielman
Statistical concepts illustrated using small QuickTime movies. Topics include: Interactive graph of the central limit theorem; normal approximation of the binomial distribution; Poisson distribution; Mean and Variance in the Normal Distribution; Graph
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 The Bertrand Russell Editorial Project  McMaster University
These archives, at McMaster University, house the complete papers of Bertrand Russell (18721970), British Philosopher, logician, essayist and renowned peace advocate. His Collected Papers include logical and philosophical works, Toward the "Principles
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 Bertrand: Symbolic Logic ProblemSolving Software  Larry Herzberg
Using a decomposition/instantiation algorithm inspired by the 'consistency tree' method found in Leblanc and Wisdom's textbook Deductive Logic, Bertrand solves sets of firstorder symbolic logic statements (subjectequality supported) for satisfiability
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 Bessel, Friedrich Wilhelm (Funk & Wagnalls Multimedia Encyclopedia)  Lycos Zone: Mathematics
A short biography of Friedrich Wilhelm Bessel (17841846), the German astronomer and mathematician, best known for making the first accurate measurement of the distance to a star.
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 Best of the Web  Math
A directory listing of math sites on the web.
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 The Best Two Points in a Square (Math Chat)  Frank Morgan, MAA Online
Solution to the challenge: Where do you think you should you place two points in a unit square to minimize the average distance in the square to the nearest of the two points? Computer calculations by Al Zimmermann yield configurations of 211 points
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 BetterExplained  Kalid Azad
Discover and share the "intuitive insights that make complicated ideas simple. Our 'ahha!' moments are different, and that's ok. There's no single way to explain an idea...." Preferring the construction of maps over the memorization of directions, the
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 The Better File Cabinet  Eric Hsu
A database of nonroutine calculus problems used in college workshops for Uri Treisman's Emerging Scholars Programs. It was originally a highly searchable database of calculus problems, comments and solutions. It will eventually will be a database crossreferencing
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 A Better Mathematics Curriculum  Tom Davis; Math Forum, Ask Dr. Math FAQ
What should we be teaching students today? Dr. Tom provides his take on what would make a better math curriculum.
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 Between Arithmetic and Algebra  Cut the Knot!, Alexander Bogomolny
What is the difference between the arithmetic 3+5 = 5+3 and the algebraic a+b = b+c? One is a specific fact, another is a pattern valid in a multitude of situations. While arithmetic may hint at some regularities, algebra, as a language, gives expression
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 Between Arithmetic and Algebra  Cut the Knot!, Alexander Bogomolny
What is the difference between the arithmetic 3 + 5 = 5 + 3 and the algebraic a + b = b + c? One is a specific fact, another is a pattern valid in a multitude of situations. While arithmetic may hint at some regularities, algebra, as a language, gives
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 Between the Folds  Corporation for Public Broadcasting
Exploring the science, art, creativity, and ingenuity of origami, Between the Folds chronicles the stories of ten leading paperfolders and their works of art. The game "Match the Folds" presents three finished works of origami alongside the fold pattern
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 Beyond Extra Large (and Ultra Small)  Ivars Peterson (MathTrek)
Metric prefixes come in handy for expressing both large and small quantities. So we have megawatt power systems and gigabyte hard drives at the high end, and we have nanoscale electronics and femtosecond lasers at the low end. Advances in scientific research
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 Beyond the Ellipse  Ivars Peterson (MathLand)
There's a simple trick one can use to draw an ellipse. Tie the ends of a length of string to two pins (or thumbtacks) stuck in a sheet of paper on a drawing board. Then, keeping the string taut with the point of a pencil, allow the pencil to trace a path
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 Beyond the IndividualSocial Antimony in Discussions of Piaget and Vygotsky  Cole, Wertsch
A discussion of the ongoing debate about the relation between the ideas of Vygotsky and Piaget, emphasizing a cardinal difference between them: their views concerning the importance of culture, in particular, the role of mediation of action through artifacts,
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 The Bible Code That Wasn't  Keith Devlin (Devlin's Angle)
Just over a year ago, journalist Michael Dronin's book The Bible Code hit the bookstores  and soon after that the television screens and review pages of national newspapers  and quickly became an international bestseller. Both author and publisher made
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 Bibliographies on Typesetting  AlfChristian Achilles
Searchable bibliographies of scientific literature on typesetting (SGML, TeX, fonts, PostScript, electronic publishing, typography, font readability, etc.). The bibliographies are updated monthly from their original locations.
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 Bibliographies on Wavelets  Collection of Computer Science Bibliographies, University of Karlsruhe
Search interface for an extensive collection of bibliographies on wavelets.
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 Bibliography by Topic of the Mathematical Sciences in the Medieval Islamic World  Jeff Oaks
An online bibliography of medieval Islamic mathematicsover 1000 articles and books listed by topic. Restricted to works published since 1950 in western European languages. Reviews are also included. Mathematics in medieval times included more or less
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 Bibliography Index  MacTutor Math History Archives
About 700 books/articles on the History of Mathematics, some general works and some more specialised, intended to supplement the list of references attached to each biography or History topic in the MacTutor Math History archives. The items in the bibliography
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 A Bibliography of Bernoulli Numbers  Karl Dilcher
A bibliography of Bernoulli numbers by Karl Dilcher and Ilja Sh. Slavutskii. The Bernoulli numbers are among the most interesting and important number sequences in mathematics. They are particularly important in number theory, especially in
connection
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 A Bibliography of Mathematics Education  Paul Ernest, University of Exeter, U.K.
A 1994 electronic bibliography prepared for students at the University of Exeter, U.K. Contents: Society, Diversity And Mathematics Education; The Learning Of Mathematical Topics; The Psychology Of Learning Mathematics; Teaching Approaches And Resources
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 Bibliography on Hilbert's Tenth Problem  AlfChristian Achilles; Computer Science Bibliography Collection
Browse or search almost 400 references in this bibliography by Maxim Vsemirnov and Yuri Matiyasevich. Its ultimate goal is to contain references to all publications connected with the undecidability of Hilbert's Tenth Problem.
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 Bicycle Tracks (Geometry and the Imagination)  Conway, Doyle, Gilman, Thurston; The Geometry Center
Students are to discuss passage from a Sherlock Holmes story, The Adventure of the Priory School (by Arthur Conan Doyle): 'This track, as you perceive, was made by a rider who was going from the direction of the school.'...
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 Bifurcations, Equilibria, and Phase Lines: Modern Topics in Differential Equations Courses  Robert L. Devaney; Dept. of Mathematics, Boston University
Elementary bifurcation theory is topic is rarely included in traditional
differential equations courses, yet it is of crucial importance in many engineering applications. In the Boston University Differential Equations project (a joint effort with Paul
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 The Big_Number Page  Jerome Delcourt
Libraries written in the Ada programming language for computing large numbers (mainly large integers) greater than the predefined numerical types.
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 BigInteger Arithmetic in BASIC  Sjoerd J. Schaper
A small but complete, free, open source, large integer/big number library in Basic code. Developed under QuickBasic for speed, but just as easily used with Visual
Basic for Win. Some QB number theory sample modules are added, as well as a VBwin cryptographic
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 Big Integers in JavaScript  Leemon Baird
A JavaScript library for arbitraryprecision integers. This page performs RSA in any base: binary, decimal, hexadecimal, base 64, and base 95 (whole keyboard), in which the message can be ordinary text. The library allows addition, subtraction, multiplication,
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 The Big List of Puzzle and Riddle Pages  MindBreakers Associates Inc.
An annotated list of links to sites with collections of math and word puzzles; also the best puzzles (the files), ranked for coolness and difficulty, with solutions and discussion: Gold for free; Just draw a line...; Turn on a lightbulb; the Wizard and
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 BigPictures Index  MacTutor Math History Archives
An alphabetical list of pictures of mathematicians accompanying the archives.
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 The Billion Prices Project  Roberto Rigobon and Alberto Cavallo, Sloan School of Management, Massachusetts Institute of Technology
The Billion Prices Project monitors the daily price fluctuations of millions of items sold by hundreds of online retailers in more than 70 countries. The Billion Prices Project (BPP) then uses those data to conduct economic research into pricing and sales
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 Binary Cubic Forms and Cubic Number Fields (Organic Mathematics Proceedings)  Henri Cohen
A paper presenting a small part of the theory of binary cubic forms, in particular its application to cubic number fields. Most of the results are due to DavenportHeilbronn, but the algorithmic applications seem to be new.
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 BinaryTranslator.com
Translate text to binary and vice versa, and similarly convert between binary and decimal.
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 Binomial Coefficients  Bill Hammel
A collection of identities and formulas involving binomial coefficients: defined by factorials, appearing in Pascal's Triangle, derived with choose notation and summation formulas, approximated by Stirling's Formula, and more.
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 Binomial Coefficients  Jay's Corner
A binomial is an algebraic expression with two terms, like x + y. When we multiply out the powers of a binomial we can call the result a binomial expansion. Multiplying out an expression is just a matter of using the distributive laws of arithmetic, a(b+c)
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 Biografias y Vidas  Biografias y Vidas, S. C. P.
Biographies in Spanish, including those of mathematicians. Using the advanced search (Buscador Avanzado), search for matematicas in the description.
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 A biographical sketch of Ada Byron, Lady Lovelace  Dr. Betty Toole
A brief biography and book reference of Ada Byron, Lady Lovelace, one of the most picturesque characters in computer history, who suggested to Babbage a plan that is now regarded as the first "computer program." Also Ada Lovelace's Notes on her translation
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 Biographical Studies  Clark Kimberling; Dept. of Mathematics, Univ. of Evansville, Evansville, IN
Biographies of: Emmy Noether (18821935) mathematician; David Dale Owen (18071860) geologist; Joseph Granville Norwood (18071895) geologist; Margaret Chappellsmith (18061883) lecturer and writer; John Chappellsmith (18061895) artist and writer; Eduardo
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 Biographies Index  MacTutor Math History Archives
An index of pages on famous mathematicians throughout history, arranged alphabetically or chronologically and searchable by keyword. There is also an index of female mathematicians, and a full alphabetical index.
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 Biography of M. C. Escher  Thames and Hudson's Escher Interactive
A biography of the wellknown, early 20th century artist. Escher's work is famous today for the imaginary worlds he created. He combined bizarre creatures and spatial illusions with craftsmanship and love of detail. Born in Holland in 1898, the son of
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 Biology and Other Natural Sciences, Behavioral Sciences  Dave Rusin; The Mathematical Atlas
A short article designed to provide an introduction to natural and behavioral sciences whose connections merit explicit connection in the MSC scheme: Chemistry, Biology, Genetics, Medicine, Psychology, Sociology, and other social sciences as a group.
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 Biomathematics  Department of Mathematics, Marquette University
Biological modeling refers to the development and analysis of mathematical equations that model biological phenomena. Accurate modeling depends on the interdisciplinary collaboration of mathematicians, biologists, and often other scientists as well; faculty
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