 Approximations and Expansions  Dave Rusin; The Mathematical Atlas
A short article designed to provide an introduction to approximations and expansions, which primarily concern the approximation of classes of real functions by functions of special types. This includes approximations by linear functions, polynomials (not
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 AP Statistics  BB&N Upper School
A course from the Buckingham Browne & Nichols School. Advanced Placement Statistics acquaints students with the major concepts and tools for collecting, analyzing, and drawing conclusions from data, featuring work on projects involving the handson
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 apstat  The College Board, Math Forum
A list for prospective teachers and others involved in the development of the Advanced Placement Statistics Examination. Read and search archived messages.
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 The APT Library: Monte Carlo Sampling, Geometric Analysis and Other Useful Subroutines  Arthur L. Edwards
The AllParticleTracking (APT) subroutine library contains over 300
subroutines, primarily for Monte Carlo and geometric applications.
It is designed especially to support 2D and 3D codes that generate and
track particles or beams of matter or energy,
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 Arabesco
 Hasan Isawi
Freehand designs elaborated with Autocad and Photoshop to create arabesque images. Site is in Italian.
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 Arabic Mathematics  David Joyce; Dept. of Mathematics & Computer Science, Clark University
Resources on the history of Arabic mathematics, with a map, a list of mathematicians, sources, and a Bibliography.
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 Arabic mathematics: forgotten brilliance?  MacTutor Math History Archives
Linked essay exploring the debt we owe to Arabic/Islamic mathematics. In many respects the mathematics studied today is far closer in style to that of the Arabic/Islamic contribution than to that of the Greeks. Certainly many of the ideas previously thought
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 The Arabic numeral system  MacTutor Math History Archives
Linked essay exploring the transmission of Indian numerals first to the Arabic/Islamic peoples and from them to Europe. The eastern and western parts of the Arabic world (North Africa and Spain) both saw separate developments of Indian numerals with relatively
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 Arbeitsgruppe Bachem/Schrader  University of Köln
A working group of the Center for Parallel Computing (ZPR) at Köln. Site includes a list of members and contact address; informative writeups on its projects, some in English. Topics include: Basic Research (meaning "pure" as opposed to "applied");
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 Arbelos Internet Math Society  Bert Liberi and William F. Widulski, Westchester Communtiy College
A mathematics society dedicated to the pursuit of elegance in problemsolving. Every month, solve challenging problems that require "more imagination than memorization." Also, access old problems and solutions; and study a list of heuristics of problemsolving,
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 Archimedes' Book of Lemmas  Alexander Bogomolny
Archemedes' Book of Lemmas included fifteen propositions. They are listed here, each with its own Java illustration and complete proof.
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 Archimedes  Chris Rorres, Drexel University
A collection of information on Archimedes' life and achievements, complete with historical quotes, illustrations, and animations. The site covers Archimedes' inventions and accomplishments: Archimedes' Claw, Burning Mirrors, the Golden Crown, the Archimedes
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 Archimedes Geo3D  Andreas Goebel
Software for interactive geometry in three dimensions that you can use to: construct points, lines, spheres, planes, triangles and many more objects; trace points, lines or circles to get locus lines or locus surfaces; drag objects and see the rest of
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 Archimedes Palimpsest  The Walters Art Gallery
An introduction to the people, places, times, and historical significance of the Archimedes Palimpsest, a compendium of mathematical treatises by Archimedes of Syracuse. The manuscript itself includes the only copy of the treatise Method of Mechanical
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 Archimedes' Square (Stomachion)  Kadon Enterprises, Inc.
Square puzzle dissected into 14 tiles, described in Archimedes' palimpsest. Oldest documented puzzle in history, from ca. 250 B.C. Now known to have 536 distinct solutions.
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 Archimy.com: 3D Graphs Online  Denis Kozyr
A service for drawing the graphs of all kinds of functions. Users can define a graph by specifying the formula for the coordinates x, y, and z.
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 Archives Henri Poincaré  PierreEdouard Bour and Manuel Rebuschi
La laboratoire de Philosophie et d'Histoire des Sciences (LPHS) réunit des scientifiques intéressés à l'histoire et à l'épistémologie de leur disciplines et des philosophes et historiens prêts à
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 Archives of American Mathematics  The Dolph Briscoe Center for American History, The University of Texas at Austin
The only archival repository in the United States solely dedicated to collecting, preserving, and providing access to the records of American mathematicians and mathematical organizations for use by historians, mathematicians, educators, and others interested
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 Archives of NMBRTHRY@LISTSERV.NODAK.EDU (Number Theory List)  North Dakota Higher Education Computer Network (NODAK)
Searchable archives of postings, September 1987  present.
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 ArcLessons  Environmental Systems Research Institute, Inc. (ESRI)
Lessons for using geographic information systems (GIS) in the classroom include X and Y Coordinates Rule the Map, Investigating Temperature Extremes in the USA, Baseball Radio Station Analysis, The Dust Bowl, The Great Migration, Japanese American Internment,
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 Are Mathematicians Turning Soft?  Keith Devlin (Devlin's Angle)
An article about 'soft mathematics'. "...In order to capture some of the abstract patterns and structures of mind and language, linguists sometimes find it convenient (perhaps necessary) to make use of mathematics, or at least mathematical notation or
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 Are You Ready for Calculus  Department of Mathematics and Statistics, University of New Brunswick
A test designed to give students an idea of what UNB expects them to be able to do. Answers are provided.
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 Argus Clearinghouse: Math and Statistics  Argus Associates, Inc.
Guides on topics pertaining to the study of numbers, measurement, and physical or virtual space.
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 Aristotle and the Paradoxes of Logic  Gilbert Voeten
At about the same time that set theory began to influence other branches of mathematics, various contradictions, called paradoxes, were discovered. A paradox, however, is only due to a striking violation of at least one of Aristotle's laws of logic. The
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 Arithmagic  Ivars Peterson (MathTrek)
Arthur T. Benjamin eschews the usual trappings of the magician's trade. Calling himself a mathemagician, he astonishes audiences with amazing feats of mental arithmetic. Behind the scenes, he reveals how you, too, can look like a genius without really
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 Arithmetic and Algebra  Interactive Mathematics Miscellany and Puzzles, Alexander Bogomolny
More than 110 games or puzzles having to do with arithmetic or algebra, with extensive discussions and solutions. Most require a browser capable of displaying JavaScript or Java.
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 Arithmetic (Funk & Wagnalls Multimedia Encyclopedia)  Lycos Zone: Mathematics
A short article on arithmetic: fundamental definitions and laws; theory of divisors; fractions; and decimals.
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 Arithmetic is Algebra Backwards  John Hays
A series of essays, including: Deriving integers as vectors of Naturals; rationals, vectors of integers; reals as infinite vectors of rationals by adjoining transfinite operation of LIMIT to arithmetic finite operations; complex numbers as vector of reals
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 Arithmetic Properties of Binomial Coefficients (Organic Mathematics Proceedings)  Andrew Granville
Many great mathematicians of the nineteenth century considered problems involving binomial coefficients modulo a prime power (for instance Babbage, Cauchy, Cayley, Gauss, Hensel, Hermite, Kummer, Legendre, Lucas and Stickelberger). They discovered a variety
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 Arizona Mathematical Software
A collection of approximately 60 educational programs that are designed for use by instructors and students in classroom, laboratory, and home environments. Software falls into four categories: Are You Ready?; Slide Shows; Teacher Aids; Toolkits. It runs
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 ARMA Grapher  Aaron Bono
An applet designed to give those new to the field of Time Series a feel for the
"look" of some basic time series models, to help students and instructors generate random data for simple ARMA models and get a feel for what the data might look like. It
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 Arnd Roth  Arnd Roth, Institute for Theoretical Physics, Heidelberg, Germany
Arnd Roth studies computational physics and neuroscience. This page provides documentation and code for related Mathematica notebooks, and a notebook for the Knight's Tour chess problem, available online. Also links to abstracts or text of many of Roth's
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 Around the Dartboard  Ivars Peterson (MathLand)
The numbers on a standard dartboard have the following order, going clockwise starting at the top: 20, 1, 18, 4, 13, 6, 10, 15, 2, 17, 3, 19, 7, 16, 8, 11, 14, 9, 15, and 5. Why this particular order? A possible criterion for designing a dartboard is
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 ARPACK  Danny C. Sorensen
Anonymous ftp archive for ARPACK, a software package for solving largescale symmetric, nonsymmetric standard, or generalized eigenvalue problems. Industrialscale problems with as many as 250K degrees of freedom have been solved with this package. Future
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 artchives / artists / MATH  SunSITE
The SunSITE Mathematical Art Gallery from the SITO Artchives  images by math artists (under copyright). Fractals and many other kinds of images; with biographies of the artists.
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 Articulation in Mathematics Education  EXTEND  Perspectives in Mathematics Education
Links to articles on creating smoother transitions between education and work, between school and college and within sectors of higher education, and about preparing teachers to facilitate these transitions and students to respond to new environments.
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 Artificial Intelligence Resources  NRC  National Research Council (NRC) of Canada
Internet resources useful to AI researchers: Archives for newsgroups and mailing lists; bibliographies; books; companies; conferences; employment opportunities; FAQs; journals; location index (various AI research groups, organized geographically); list
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 Artistic Exploration of Hilbert Space Filling Curve  Don Relyea
Artist Don Relyea uses a Hilbert space filling curve to create generative
modern art. Page includes interactive demonstrations with source code
examples and and background information on Hilbert curves with links to
further documentation.
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 An Artist's Timely Riddles  Ivars Peterson  Science News Online
The late 19th and early 20th centuries were a time of great popular interest in visualizing a fourth spatial dimension  a concept that appeared to offer painters and sculptors, in particular, an avenue of escape from conventional representation. Moreover,
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 Artlandia Kaleidoscope  Artlandia, Inc.
A fully interactive program based on and available free with the purchase of the software program Artlandia (requires Mathematica 3.0 or higher; available for all platforms that run Mathematica). It
is as easy to use as an ordinary kaleidoscope  create
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 Artlandia  Software for Programmable Creative Graphic Design  Artlandia, Inc.
A Mathematicabased application for artistic interpretation of data and creating mathematical and algorithmic art. The software provides a selection of tools for constructing geometrical objects from numerical arrays, distributing geometric shapes over
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 Art Matrix Fractals  H. Smith, J. Staller
Some basic information about fractals; a fractal gallery; and a twohour video for sale on the subject of fractals and chaotic dynamical systems. What is a fractal?; Product line; Wholesale policy; Introduction to Fractals; etc.
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 The Art of Fractals  Joseph Trotsky; Artis Fractal Gallery
An online fractal exhibition with images grouped into the themes Paintings, Legends and Fairy Tales, Places, Flowers, Foliage, Trees and Forest, Fauna, Landscapes, Classic, Geometric, Marine, Mystic, and Zodiac.
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 The Art of the Experiment: Educational Software  Symynet; Jeff Rasmussen, Ph.D.
Elearning software that teaches statistical analysis in the context of experimental design. Program information, free demo, pricing and discount information, and ordering information are all available on the site.
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 Art of the Grid  Ivars Peterson (MathTrek)
The idea of transferring information from one grid to another has a long history inboth mathematics and art. When the blank grid differs from the original grid, a drawing can suffer intriguing distortions. In art, the result is sometimes called an anamorphic
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 Art of the Tetrahedron  Ivars Peterson (MathTrek)
"Any four points in space that are not all on the same plane mark the corners of four triangles. The triangles in turn are the faces of a tetrahedron. It's the simplest of all polyhedrasolids bounded by polygons... To sculptor Arthur Silverman of New
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 arXiv.org ePrint archive  Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL)
A major site for mathematics preprints that has incorporated many formerly independent specialist archives including alggeom, functan, dgga, qalg, autofms, cdhg, MAGNUS, Several Complex Variables, Logic Eprints, Commutative Algebra, Dynamical Systems,
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 ASCIIMathML  Peter Jipsen, Chapman University
The ASCIIMathML.js script uses a calculatorstyle syntax and your own ASCII or XHTML editor to incorporate mathematical formulas on web pages. See examples by visiting the site with Internet Explorer 6 + MathPlayer or Mozilla/Netscape 7.
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 Ask a Mathematician / Ask a Physicist
"Your math and physics questions answered." Blog posts, which date back to October, 2009, originate from questions posed via email, at the duo's stand at Burningman, in person by friends, or "this one time in Union Square": "How do I find the love of
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 AskAScientist Archives  Newton BBS, Argonne National Laboratory
Frequently asked astronomy, biology, chemistry, computer science, engineering, environmental, general, physics, and mathematics question posts, replies from NEWTON, an Electronic Bulletin Board System (BBS) for Science, Math, and Computer Science K12
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