 Chinese Numbers  Erik E. Peterson
Convert arabic numerals up to 1 billion into Chinese numbers, or show the value of a Chinese number (type or paste in a number in Chinese and click "Show English." With, in addition, A Brief Description of the Chinese Number System, and links to related
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 Chinese Remainder Theorem  Interactive Mathematics Miscellany and Puzzles, Alexander Bogomolny
An explanation and proof, using modular arithmetic, of the Chinese Remainder Theorem, which concerns problems of the following type: There are certain things whose number is unknown. Repeatedly divided by 3, the remainder is 2; by 5 the remainder is 3;
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 Chinks in Digital Armor  Ivars Peterson  Science News Online
Tampering with a smart card can force it into making errors in the calculations used for encrypting data, potentially allowing the code to be broken.
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 Chinook (champion checkers computer program)  Jonathan Schaeffer, Dept. of Computing Science, Univ. of Alberta
Chinook is the World ManMachine Checkers Champion, a title it earned by competing in human tournaments and defeating the best players in the world.
Chinook is the byproduct of a research effort started in 1989 into gameplaying strategies. The longterm
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 Christianity and the Mathematical Sciences  the Heliocentric Hypothesis  MacTutor Math History Archives
Linked essay on Christianity's influence on the mathematical sciences. With references and other related web sites.
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 Christmas With The Polyiamonds Puzzle Family  Jos H. Hindriks
Polyiamonds share their general principles with Pentominoes, except that their basic 'cell' is the sixtydegree triangle instead of the square. The term 'Polyiamonds', derived from the word 'diamond', was introduced in 1961 by T.H. O'Beirne. Hexiamonds,
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 Chron Me! Online Stopwatch
Easily record time in increments, whenever you have a multipart task to time. Press start; press stop; add a label for that segment; repeat as needed; download the resulting comma or semicolonseparated file to your computer, or open it with Excel.
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 A Chronology of Mathematicians  MacTutor Math History Archives
A chronology of mathematicians between the dates stated, showing how the lives of
the mathematicians overlap: 700 BC700 AD; 7001650; 16251775; 17501850; 18251900; 18751957. Where either the birth or death of a mathematician is unknown (mostly for
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 A chronology of pi  MacTutor Math History Archives
Precomputer calculations of pi, from the Rhind papyrus through Ferguson (1946); computer calculations from Ferguson (1947) through Kanada, Takahashi (Sept 1999). With references and other related web sites.
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 Chronology of Recreational Mathematics  Mario Velucchi
David Singmaster's list of events from circa 2700BC to 1993, with references, includes how in Greek mythology, Palamedes was the inventor of dice; in 1392, three packs of cards were made for Charles VI of France; in 1605, Cervantes' Don Quixote gives
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 ChronoMath: Petite Chronologie des Mathématiques  S. Mehl
Travaux fondamentaux de l'histoire des maths de l'Antiquité à nos jours. Le site dispose d'une vaste documentation et d'une bibliographie. An extensive site on math history, in French, with bibliography.
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 Cinderella: Interactive Geometry Software  RichterGebert, Kortenkamp
A fullfeatured interactive geometry program in German that uses Java as the programming language and includes a true symbolic theorem prover. A demo version that will run for 15 minutes at a time may be downloaded from the Web; the site also includes
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 Cipher Challenge  University of Southampton
A cipher challenge for cryptographers under the age of 19. With solutions and comments about the breaking of sets of encoded messages, or ciphertexts, of increasing difficulties.
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 Circles and Spheres (The Geometry Junkyard)  David Eppstein, Theory Group, ICS, UC Irvine
An extensive annotated list of links to material on circles and spheres.
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 Circles in the Sky  Ivars Peterson; Science News Online
Detecting the shape of the universe: evidence of a finite, multiply connected universe may show up in microwave data from future spacecraft.
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 Circles of Dissonance  Ivars Peterson (MathTrek)
Much of today's music rests upon ancient tradition going back thousands of years to the time of the Greek mathematician and mystic Pythagoras. The Pythagoreans observed that tones an octave apart are pleasing to the ear. In modern terms,
one can say
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 Circles of Light: The Mathematics of Rainbows  Frederick J. Wicklin, Paul Edelman; The Geometry Center
How are rainbows formed? Why do they only occur when the sun is behind the observer? If the sun is low on the horizon, at what angle in the sky should we expect to see a rainbow? This lab helps to answer these and other questions by examining a mathematical
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 Circles of Light: The Mathematics of Rainbows  Steven Janke; The Geometry Center
How are rainbows formed? Why do they only occur when the sun is behind the observer? If the sun is low on the horizon, at what angle in the sky should we expect to see a rainbow? This lab helps to answer these and other questions by examining a mathematical
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 Circumference of an Ellipse (Ask Dr. Math FAQ)  Math Forum
A discussion of the derivation of the formula for the circumference of an ellipse. Also discussions of the evaluation of the formula, and approximating the circumference.
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 Clash of the Chess Titans  Keith Devlin (Devlin's Angle)
Thoughts on the KasparovDeep Blue match of 3 May 1997. Throughout history, people have been building machines that can perform tasks better than humans. When Kasparov, referring to his upcoming match, talks about "an area that defines human beings,"
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 Classes With Web Resources  University of Illinois at UrbanaChampaign (UIUC)
A list of University of Illinois hypertext courses that are using the Web to augment traditional instructional materials, covering, among other topics, Civil Engineering, Computer Science, and Mathematics. Follow the links to read the course descriptions
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 Classical Dynamics: Spinning Eggs — A Paradox Resolved  H. K. Moffatt and Y. Shimomura, Nature
"If a hardboiled egg is spun sufficiently rapidly on a table with its axis of symmetry horizontal, this axis will rise from the horizontal to the vertical. Conversely, if an oblate spheroid is spun sufficiently rapidly with its axis of symmetry vertical,
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 The Classical & Keynesian ADAS Model of the Canadian Economy  Elmer G. Wiens; Egwald Web Services Ltd.
Macroeconomics model of the Canadian economy considering both the aggregate supply and aggregate demand for products. Illustrated article with interactive supplemental page.
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 Classic Iterated Function Systems  Larry Riddle
These pages investigate several of the classic iterated functions systems
and their associated fractals. Each IFS consists of affine transformations
involving rotations, scalings by a constant ratio, and translations. For
each example is given
* a
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 Classroom Capsules and Notes  MAA Online
Classroom Capsules and Notes brings together the best of 114 years of the short classroom materials from the MAA print publications. These materials are free to everyone.
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 Clay Mathematics Institute  Clay Mathematics Institute
The primary objectives and purposes of Clay Mathematics Institute (CMI) are to increase and disseminate mathematical knowledge, to educate mathematicians and other scientists about new discoveries in the field of mathematics, to encourage gifted students
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 Cálculo Contractivo
In Spanish: Nuestro grupo de investigación se ha propuesto compartir conocimientos con aquellas personas que estén motivadas para el estudio de la matemática o que puedan interesarse en conocer métodos no convencionales en Cálculo Numérico ó en áreas
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 Cleave Books
Teacher Resources on Line (TRoL) include downloadable grid paper; Ttiles; dictionary exercises; shapes Bingo; MisMaths, an annotated collection of innumeracy and other math mistakes in news headlines; fact sheets; tables; formulas; a mathematical vocabulary
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 CLICAL  Pertti Lounesto; Helsinki Institute of Technology, Finland
A calculatorlike Windows/DOS computer program for vectors, complex numbers, quaternions, bivectors, spinors, and multivectors in Clifford algebras, intended for researchers and teachers of Clifford algebras and spinors. CLICAL works directly on intrinsic
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 Clickmazes  Gilbert, Mitchell
An extensive collection of interactive puzzles and mazes organized in the following categories: Maze gallery; Attic gallery; Maze of Life; HexaRoll; Oskar's fourbit mazes; 2D tilt mazes; Colourzone mazes; 3D tilt mazes; Tilt puzzles; NEWS and RULES;
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 CLIFFORD: A Maple V (Rel. 5.1) Package for Clifford Algebra Computations  Rafal Ablamowicz
For PCs. Also available is a version compatible with Maple V R.3 and R.4. Freely available for personal use only.
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 Climate Dynamics, Chaos and Quantum Mechanics  Dr. A. Mary Selvam
A theory of everything for chaos, quantum mechanics, and gravity, applicable to macroscale weather patterns and subatomic dynamics as well as turbulent fluid flows. Contents focus on nonlinear dynamics and chaos (fractal geometry), iteration, a cell
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 CLKCalculator  Lars Kobarg
Reverse Polish notation Calcualtor is a calculator program for Windows with unit conversion and matrix calculator, functions for vectors and complex numbers, and a
function plotter.
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 CLKCalculator  Lars Kobarg
A skinnable calculator for Windows, intended for a wide range of users. Use algebraic or RPN input mode to do unit conversions, matrix calculations, complex number calculations, vectors handling and function plotting. Find constants or formulas in the
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 Clusters and Decagons  Ivars Peterson  Science News Online
A novel pattern made up of overlapping, 10sided tiles may serve as a model of how atoms arrange themselves into a quasicrystalline structure.
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 Clutch Hitting  Elan Fuld
Download the PDF of a study examining whether clutch (or choke) hitters exist in professional baseball. Using playbyplay data, Fuld found substantial evidence that clutch hitters exist in Major League Baseball, when sacrifice flies are considered as
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 CMAP  CBased Mathematical Application Programming Environment  Dr. Kinh H. Ha
Free, educational software that provides a visual, comprehensive, and compact environment for numerical computation, graphics, and rapid development of computational software. Joining this Yahoo! Group enables download of the program and notification
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 Cmathématique  Téléfiction
Liens à consulter classés par sujet et par niveau; des problèmes du mois, un concours pour l'honneur dont les meilleures solutions de participants seront publiées sur le site; des capsules "crack" mathématiques offrant
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 CoCoA System  Robbiano et al.; Italy
A free, multiplatform software system for running computations in commutative algebra. CoCoA's principal area of expertise is operations over commutative rings of polynomials; it can readily compute Gröbner bases, syzygies and minimal free resolutions
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 CO Combinatorics (Front for the Mathematics ArXiv)  Univ. of California, Davis
Combinatorics preprints, from the U.C. Davis front end for the xxx.lanl.gov ePrint archive, a major site for mathematics preprints that has incorporated many formerly independent specialist archives. Search by keyword or browse by topic.
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 CODEE Learning Assets Library  Consortium for Ordinary Differential Equations Experiments (CODEE)
Electronic versions of the 19921997 CODEE newsletters, which published pedagogical articles, lesson plans, computer experiments, and software reviews related to ODEs. The Consortium for Ordinary Differential Equations Experiments (CODEE) seeks to disseminate,
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 C*ODE*E  Mathematics Dept., Harvey Mudd College
Online archives of the newsletter of the Consortium for Ordinary Differential Equations Experiments, which provided a regular source of ideas,
inspiration, and experiments for instructors of ODEs between 1992 and 1997. Search back issues by issue, keyword,
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 "The Code War"  Beyond Discovery  Dana Mackenzie et al.; National Academy of Sciences
PDF of a science article from the Beyond Discovery series that explores the trail of developments in the branch of mathematics known as number theory that led to modernday encryption techniques. Contents include: Early Ciphers; The Enigma Challenge;
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 Coffee Hour Problem of the Week  Matthew McMullen
Classic and "found" problems, as well as original challenges, in number theory, logical reasoning, statistics, calculus, geometry, and algebra. McMullen has posted PDFs of the PoWs, as well as their solutions, since 2007.
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 Coins, Art, and Math in North Bay  Ivars Peterson (MathTrek)
North Bay's Nipissing University hosted the annual meeting of the Ontario
Association for Mathematics Education, which attracted about 650 math teachers. As one of the featured speakers, I presented a talk on randomness. My examples included slot machines,
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 Colección de Juegos de Ingenio del Club Mensa  Javier García Algarra
Esta colección recoge juegos de ingenio y problemas de matemática recreativa publicados en diversas revistas de Mensa, la asociación internacional para personas con un elevado cociente intelectual. En cada problema se hace referencia
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 Colégio de Gaia, Grupo de Matematica
Math resources in Portuguese: Galeria de Sketches  a gallery of JavaSketchpad and Geometer's Sketchpad problems and sketches including the Pythagorean theorem (o Teorema de Pitágoras), Vector Addition (Adicao de Vectores), cutting a cube/parallelepiped
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 Collaborative Learning Discussion Archive  Math Forum
A special project hosted by the Math Forum, this discussion concerned collaborative learning, its definition, its effects on teachers and students, administration and assessment issues, and materials and resources. The discussion began as email conversations,
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 Collaborative Learning  Mathematics Education at The Math Forum
A collection of links to collaborative and cooperative learning resources on the Web, including articles, discussions, and teaching techniques that emphasize collaboration.
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 The Collage Theorem  Cut the Knot!, Alexander Bogomolny
To find an IFS whose attractor is "close to" or "looks like" a given set, one must endeavor to find a set of transformations  contraction mappings on a suitable set within which the given set lies  such that the union, or collage, of the images of the
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