 Unlocking Puzzling Polygons  Ivars Peterson  Science News Online
An ingenious proof settles a wickedly prickly question about unfurling crinkly polygons. Think of a polygon as a chain of rigid rods connected to each other in two dimensions with flexible joints. Start with any configuration, no matter how complex and
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 Unsolved Problems in Function Theory  Alexandre Eremenko
Files available in PDF format: Some constants studied by Littlewood; Meromorphic functions satisfying certain differential equations (E. Hille); Does every universe contain a place where you can stay at rest? (Lee Rubel); Holomorphic curves with few inflection
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 Unsolved Problems in Number Theory, Logic, and Cryptography  Tim Roberts
This site "concentrates only on problems which are easily understandable to the amateur.... explainable on a single screen (perhaps 200 words), using simple terminology." Read brief descriptions of open problems such as the Chromatic Number, the Collatz
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 Unstructured Grids (UG)  Institut für Computeranwendungen, UniversitU7auml;t Stuttgart
A flexible software tool for the numerical solution of partial differential equations on unstructured meshes in two and three space dimensions using multigrid methods. Its basic design is flexible enough to support many different discretization schemes.
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 Untangled  Mehta, Gayatri; Luo, Xiaozhong; et al.
Map and place logic blocks in this game to make more compact circuit layouts on a grid  and more efficient computer chips. Visually appealing graphs bring nodes closer to parents or children and untangle knots in graphs; behind the scenes, the accumulated
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 US2020
By organizing a million mentors from industry, this organization hopes to provide "uplifting moments of discovery to children through realworld, handson projects and academic coaching" in science, technology, engineering and math (STEM) fields. The
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 USAMO/APMO/IMO/Putnam Archive  Kiran S. Kedlaya
Questions from some recent math competitions, in LaTeX or postscript format: the USA Mathematical Olympiad (USAMO) for high school students [19891999]; the Asian Pacific Mathematical Olympiad (APMO), a regional olympiad among countries on the Pacific
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 U.S. Census Bureau
Information (searchable by keyword and browseable by subject) from summary data files across cities, towns, counties, states, and other geographic and demographic boundaries, useful for many purposes from allocating representation in legislative bodies
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 U.S. Department of Education
Extensive and varied education information in categories including: educational initiatives (President's and Secretary's priorities), funding opportunities, student financial assistance, research and statistics, news and events, programs and services,
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 U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)
Links to facts/statistics on energy topics from A to Z: acid rain and air conditioning to world energy data on coal consumption, electricity prices, natural gas and oil consumption, and more. With tables, graphs, articles (some in PDF format), a Windows
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 Usenet FAQ Archive : Recreation : Puzzles  Netmeg Internet
Problems and puzzles, with solutions, from the rec.puzzles archives, in the categories: analysis, arithmetic, combinatorics, competition, decision, geometry, group, induction, instructions, language, logic, physics, pickover, probability, real life, references,
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 Using Mathematica in the Mathematics Classroom  Univ. of Illinois
A course module designed for high school and lower division college mathematics teachers who are beginners with Mathematica and who want to learn to use this software package to create transparencies and handouts, computer demonstrations, and interactive
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 Using Sketchpad: Circles  Jim King, University of Washington
A sketch illustrating families of circles orthogonal to a given circle or line, which give some motivation for the idea of reflecting a point across a line or circle. Notes on Jim King's presentation at the Sketchpad User's Group Meeting in Cincinatti
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 Using Sketchpad: Conics  Peter Andrews, Eastern Illinois University
Two sketches illustrating techniques for constructing general conic sections, one on Isaac Newton's Organic Construction and one on the MacLaurin/Braikenridge construction of a general conic. Notes on Peter Andrews' presentation at the Sketchpad User's
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 Using Sketchpad in Calculus  Doris Schattschneider, Moravian College
Three sketches about parametric equations of curves and a sketch about a (then) unsolved problem about perpendicular bisectors of quadrilaterals. Notes on Doris Schattschneider's presentation at the Sketchpad User's Group Meeting in Cincinatti in January
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 Using the Fibonacci numbers to represent integers  Ron Knott
We use base 10 for written numbers, and computers use base 2, but what about using the Fibonacci numbers as the column headers? or base Phi (1.618034...) instead of base 10? There are some interesting infinite series that relate to these  each with a
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 Using the Geometer's Sketchpad  Jeremy Bartusch, revised by Tony Peressini and Tom Anderson
An interactive tutorial on how to use the Geometer's SketchPad software, and an introduction to how this application can be used to teach geometry and to produce classroom resources with plane geometry components. Sponsored by the University of Illinois
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 Using the Internet: Mathematics  Douglas Butler; Pearson Publishing (U.K.)
A 55page looseleaf book compiled to save teachers time finding excellent resources on the WWW and to provide a curriculumbased bank of ideas. Support activities do not demand that students have free access to the Web. The pack is divided into ten main
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 US Third in Math Olympiad (Math Chat)  Frank Morgan, MAA Online
Answer to the Challenge: a small creature needs to find its way from a random point on an milewide strip of land to the sea on either side, by going distance r in a random direction and then (if it has not yet found the water), turning once t degrees
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 U Substitution  Technical Tutoring
The site describes the substitution method for solving integral problems by means of numerous examples and exercises.
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 U.S. Universities & Community Colleges  University of Texas at Austin
Universities and community colleges with Web sites in the United States, alphabetically or by state. A form is available for you to add an item.
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 The Valuation Theory Home Page  FranzViktor Kuhlmann
A forum for all mathematicians who work in valuation theory or apply valuation theoretical results in their own field of research. The home page offers: information about conferences and special events; names and email addresses of mathematicians working
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 Vancouver Math Tutor  Vlad
Tutoring services for the Vancouver, B.C. (Canada) area; articles on tutoring; and algebra and probability materials used in tutoring.
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 Variable Force and Mass: Rocket Liftoff  Boyd Gatlin, Mississippi State University
The liftoff and flight of a rocket is a physical phenomenon. But in order to analyze the process, or to predict future rocket flights, we need to be able to model the process  or at least some simplified version of it  with mathematics. Actually, the
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 VassarStats Statistical Computation  Vassar College
Online Javascript programs on topics such as statistical tests, simulation, correlation and regression: procedures applicable to categorical frequency data; procedures applicable to proportions; procedures applicable to ordinal data; correlation and regression;
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 Vector Arithmetic Java Visualization  Vladimir Sorokin; University of Kentucky
An applet with which to visualize addition, substraction and scalar multiplication of vectors on the XY plane. This demonstration was created as part of the PHY211 Undergraduate Physics Laboratory Educational Page at the Department of Physics and Astronomy
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 Vector Calculus  Carlen, Herod, Harrell; Georgia Tech
Maple and Mathematicabased lecture notes; also class notes covering material throughout the course, including interactive Java applets. Mathematics addressed includes: iterated integrals; Theorem of Pappus; integration of polar coordinates; tangent
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 vector.calculus.net (calculus@internet)  Christopher A. Barker
Core topic and course syllabi and menus for Vector/Multivariable calculus dealing with the calculus of many dimensions, specializing in computer visualization and interaction. Threedimensional space geometry; Vector arithmetic and geometry; Derivatives
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 The Vector Cross Product: A JAVA Interactive Tutorial  McNamara, Middleton, Schiff; Dept. of Physics, Syracuse University
You will see a drawing in which the vector labeled c is calculated according to your specifications for the vectors a and b. You move these by clicking on their tips and dragging them around the plane with the mouse. You can also "spin the plane" by clicking
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 Vector field analyzer II  Matthias Kawski; Arizona State University
An applet for visualization of, and experimentation with, many aspects of vector calculus. These include zooming to see the derivative of a vector field (including divergence and scalar curl), visualizing the action of the (nonlinear and linearized) flow(s)
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 Vector Land: An Introduction to 3D Vector Analysis  Paul Kirby
An online course offering Java applets and 3D graphics to teach 3D vectors and related topics such as 3D graphics programming and Newtonian mechanics. Contents: 3D Vectors; The Dot Product; The Cross Product; the Vector Equation of a Line; The Vector
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 Vectormind.com
A resource library for various subjects ranging from mathematics, to science, to software programming, to Web page development. Each category is updated frequently; existing topics are also improved and updated.
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 Vectors & Trigonometry  Dave Mason
Problems: Converting from Polar to Cartesian Coordinates; Adding Vectors; Hexagon Inscribed in a Circle; The Earth Curving Away From You; Surveying with a Protractor.
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 VedicMaths.Org  Clive Middleton, Kenneth Williams, and Mark Gaskell
Learn about the ancient system of mathematics of the Vedas through interactive tutorials, research and teaching articles, recommended books and websites, a list of sutras translated from the original Sanskrit, a calendar of events, newsletter, and references
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 VEE: The Visual Elements of Euclid  Ralph Abraham
The Euclid Project is an exfoliation of the Elements of Euclid, the most important math text of all time. It will encompass several books, a CDROM, and an educational environment on the World Wide Web. Its components are: The Visual Elements of Euclid
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 VIAS Encyclopedia  Hans Lohninger, Virtual Institute of Applied Science
An online encyclopedia of science topics, with a Mathematics section as well as a German/English dictionary.
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 The Vibonacci Numbers (Computing Science)  Brian Hayes, American Scientist
A new mathematical constant, from a branch of the Fibonacci number family in which, instead of always adding two terms to produce the next term, you either add or subtract, depending on the flip of a coin at each stage in the calculation. Hayes writes,
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 Vibrating Drumhead  H. Edward Donley; Mathematics Department, Indiana University of PA
A set of Mathematica packages that outline solutions of the wave equation in various coordinates. The Wave Equation; Conversion to Polar Coordinates; Separation of Variables; The Differential Equation in r; The Differential Equation in t; Constructing
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 Videodiscovery
A publisher and distributor of innovative multimedia products for educators and families. Laserdiscs and CDROMs for the K12 and college market. Product offerings now include laserdiscs with accompanying software, as well as CDROMs for both the school
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 Video Lectures in Mathematics  Jerry Farlow
An online pinboard gathering thousands of visual links to a broad range of math videos. Categories include applications of math; famous mathematicians; math education; math humor; math on TV, movies; STEM math initiatives; and "instructional: K12." Farlow
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 The Video Math Tutor  Luis Anthony Ast
The Video Math Tutor web site provides students from 7th grade through college with free and premium ($$$) math videos and printable notes created by a tutor with 23 years of tutoring experience. Topics covered include arithmetic and algebra. TI84 graphing
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 Video Mosaic Collaboration
"Watching students grow with math": this interactive collaboration portal integrates the Robert B. Davis Institute for Learning Video Collection (Rutgers University) — a video collection spanning two decades capturing mathematics learning experiences
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 Viewing Fourdimensional Objects in Three Dimensions  Barbara Hausmann; The Geometry Center
"Given that humans only visualize three dimensions, how is it possible to visualize four dimensional, or higher, objects? This question is the underlying idea of a short novel written over a hundred years ago by Edwin A. Abbot called Flatland. Flatland
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 ViewMath.com
Video explanations of single variable calculus. Register free for a demo, or sign up for a subscription by week or year.
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 Viewpoints  Dr. Annalisa Crannell, Franklin & Marshall College; and Marc Frantz, Indiana University  Bloomington
VIEWPOINTS is a series of workshops for college and high school instructors on the connections between mathematics and art, and the power of those connections to add interest and excitement to the presentation of either subject. Lessons available in PDF
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 Vignettes on automorphic forms, representations, Lfunctions, and number theory  Paul Garrett
Shoft downloadable "vignettes" in postscript format, and some with overviews in html. Also some vignettes on functional analysis.
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 Vi Hart  Vi Hart
Blog, videos of math "doodling," instructions for slicing food mathematically, and more from the selfdescribed recreational mathemusician who considers math a hobby, with "special interests in symmetry, polyhedra, and surreal complexity. This usually
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 A Viral Dilemma  Ivars Peterson (MathTrek)
An article that discusses how, in effect, a virus is caught up in a version of the prisoners' dilemma, a widely studied game in which acting for individual advantage clashes with acting for the collective benefit. Game theorists devised the prisoners'
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 Viral shell game  Ivars Peterson  Science News Online
The success of a virus in infecting its host depends largely on how well its outer coat functions. Made up of protein building blocks, this tightly closed shell usually has a geometric structure... Mathematical research suggests that sets of simple rules,
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 Virtual Algebra Center  City College, CUNY
The home of the World Wide Algebra project. This international megaproject has several principal parts, including Algebraic Cryptography, The World of Groups, and The World of Polynomials. These include lists of open problems, conferences and seminars,
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