 Pi = 3.14159...  Math Forum, Ask Dr. Math FAQ
What is Pi? Who first used Pi? How do you find it? How many digits is it?
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 Pi Across America  University of Phoenix
Join the "Pi Pilot" for a "journey to one of humankind's most intriguing and celebrated numbers." Activities include "The Great Chain of Pi," "Taking Pi to Court," "Your Place in Pi," "Freehand Circle Drawing Competition," "Pi Party," and "Pi Bee." Scenario
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 Pi and Square Roots  Don Cohen (The Mathman)
Kohler (a 5thgrader) follows Archimedes. A graph and a program for iterating the square root of 10. Sample problems with some answers from Chapter 10 of Don Cohen's worksheet book.
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 PianoMath Home Page: Improving Math Skills through Music  Peter Taussig, E. Paul Goldenberg
Essays and activities on links between music and mathematics. PianoMath is
a crossdisciplinary curriculum of musical classroom activities relating to
arithmetic, geometry, graphing, logic foundation, and prealgebra. It is
now being tested at an elementary
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 Pi Approximation Day Greeting Cards  123Greetings
123Greetings  Send Free Electronic Greeting Cards to Friends and Families all over the World. There are no images available for Pi Approximation Day, but backgrounds and a variety of slogans are available, and you can write your own.
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 Pi Day  Herte; Finley Middle School, Glen Cove, NY
Pi Day is March 14th, a day to celebrate mathematics in school, to allow students to have fun while investigating mathematics concepts and being creative and even a little silly. This page describes a number of Pi Day activities. You are invited to email
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 Pieces 'n Creases: A Fun Guide to Origami  Herring, Long, Haeggquist, Jeremy; ThinkQuest Junior
Contents include the history of origami; uses and benefits; terms, symbols, and tips; origami and peace; poems about origami; activities, and resources for folding paper. An awardwinning entry from Vidor Middle School.
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 PJ's Mathematical Gold Nuggets  Pam Strout; Bethel High School, Bethel, Connecticut
Links relating to K12 research topics in mathematics and mathematics teaching collected and usefully annotated by a mathematics teacher.
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 Place Value  Cut the Knot!, Alexander Bogomolny
Dictionary definitions of place value and what they lack; the emphasis on place value in the NCTM Standards; its importance in understanding our numeration system; how it arises from one of several possible representations of grouping in the counting
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 Place Value  Math Forum, Ask Dr. Math Common Question
A selection of answers to questions about place value, such as how to write a decimal from words such as hundreds and hundredths.
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 PlaceValue: ProblemSolving and Written Assessment Using DigitCorrespondence Tasks  Ross, Sunflower
This study examined the effects of researcherdeveloped lessons on students' understanding of two and threedigit numeration. Digitcorrespondence tasks, often used for individual interview assessment of place value understanding, were adapted to be
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 Plastelina Logic Games  Plastelina
Free Flash games include classic constrained "crossing" problems, such as the puzzle of ferrying a wolf, a sheep, and a head of cabbage across a river in a boat that only holds any two of them at once, without leaving the wolf and sheep alone in each
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 Platonic Solids and Euler's Formula  Margo Lynn Mankus
The lesson plan for Platonic Solids and Euler's Formula offers definitions for simple closed surfaces, solids, and regular polyhedra. After observing platonic solids nets, students complete the provided (blank) table for recording vertices and edges of
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 The Platonic Solids Information Site  Dan Radin
Information, computer graphics, a computeranimated video, teaching tools, and links pertaining to the threedimensional geometry of the polyhedron in its many forms. Radin focuses particularly on the five Platonic solidsthe tetrahedron, the cube, the
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 Platonische Körper  Klaus Bernt
Nets of the Platonic solids to fold. Download in postscript format for printing. In German.
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 Play a Piano : An interactive Musical Java Activity  Paul Flavin
Play a Piano / Synthesizer / Oscilloscope: Play the piano using your mouse or computer's keyboard. Watch the wave forms as well as hear them. This virtual reality Java piano lets you play the piano and have a little fun while learning the relation between
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 The Playground of Mathematics  Cilenia
JavaScript practice in addition, subtraction, multiplication, division, time, and comparison ("greater than, equal to, or less than"). Select difficulty, complexity, position of unknown, duration, and other settings. Also available in Russian, Italian,
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 A Playground of Thoughts  Takasugi Shinji
Takasugi's "Number Systems of the World" lists dozens of languages; how to count from zero to one hundred in each; and the mathematical meaning of the expressions for each numeral. For example, the French say "93" with quatrevingttreize, which means
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 PlaytoLearn.com  Fenzi Designs
These flash cards and other tools help students in grades K5 learn the basics of math, tell time, count money, add, subtract, multiply and divide.
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 Plotting Linear Equations  SPICE: StandardsBased Products for Interactive Classroom Education
An interactive workspace for graphing points, ordered pairs, lines, and planes. SPICE Online modules are constructed with three separate but functionally linked
areas, Instructions/Lessons, Display/Work Space, and Assessment. Detailed directions are
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 Plouffe's Inverter  Simon Plouffe
A database of more than 84,800,000 mathematical constants like Pi, Sqrt(2), Catalan and Euler's gamma. Enter a number, search or browse, and the programs will find what the number is made of. From the author of the Encyclopedia of Integer Sequences (with
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 Plumbing Statistics and Information  PlumbingSupply.com
Conversions, formulas, and tables about water weights, pressures, flows, volumes, horse power, pump efficiency, the weight of 100 yards of pipe filled with water, and flow rate to velocity comparisons. Also, a water flow rate guide and abbreviations.
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 PNA: Revista de Investigación en Didáctica de la Matemática
PNA is a peerreview open access research journal published by the Spanish research group "Mathematics Education. Numerical Thinking" of the Andalusian Plan of Research. This journal includes papers in English and Spanish related to the teaching and learning
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 Poetry Patterns (TEAMS)  Jeannie Toshima; TEAMS Distance Learning, Los Angeles County Office of Education
Mathematical patterns in numbers and in poetry. This activity involves students in writing two forms of poetry  diamante and cinquain  that involve mathematical word patterns.
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 Polydron
British vendors of two and three dimensional, handson, geometric modelling systems and other geometric toys. Polydron Corporation history, online catalogue, and order form. To purchase Polydron products in the United States, contact Polydron International
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 Polyhedrons: PolyMod Polyhedron Modeler  Daniel Grunberg
Free software for creating regular and irregular 3dimensional polyhedrons on the screen, view them from different angles, then print out their corresponding nets or templates to glue together to form the polyhedron.
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 POP Mathematics (Mathematics Archives)  University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK)
Did you ever wonder what made your teacher get so excited about some topic in Mathematics? On this page the Math Archives site collects items about Mathematics that may explain this weird behavior. Also included on this page are links they couldn't figure
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 Popnoggin  Popspring LLC
Popnoggin is a software program that allows parents or teachers to "install" popup flash cards on any game or site a student uses. Set parameters for drilling math facts to "buy" time on the site or game.
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 Population Education  Population Connection
Browse the Population Connection's catalog for population education teaching materials and posters. The library contains newsletters, quick facts, reference materials such as free activities and frequently asked questions, quizzes, and more. Population
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 Portraits of Albert Einstein  Robert Bruen
Numerous blackandwhite photographs of Einstein, provided by Robert Bruen.
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 Power Conversion  MedCalc.com
Convert to and from watts, btus, cals, ergs, ftlbs, horsepower, kilowatt.
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 Power Math: Online Math Problem Solving
Algebra, geometry, and arithmetic formulas for grades up to 9th.
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 Power of 2 Publishing  David Sharp, Power of 2
Publishers of a series of books, intended to give structured support to those who benefit from more repetition and practice than is often available in the classroom. Power of 2 also offers workshops on using the books with students.
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 The Power of Innovative Scheduling  Robert Lynn Canady; Educational Leadership Journal
A November 1995 article. "Alternative schedules may not add hours to the school day, but they can vastly improve the quality of the time students spend at school." Issues facing all schools; scheduling tips for elementary, middle and high schools; references.
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 Powers of Ten  Bruce Bryson
A series of images based on the book Powers of Ten, by Philip and Phyllis Morrison and the Office of Charles and Ray Eames. Each picture's subject is ten times wider or narrower than the next. Images range from quarks at 1016 meters to groups of galaxies
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 Practical Assessment, Research & Evaluation  PAREonline.net
Practical Assessment, Research and Evaluation (PARE) is an online journal providing education professionals access to refereed articles that can have a positive impact on assessment, research, evaluation, and teaching practice, especially at the local
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 Practical Money Skills for Life  VISA
For educators, parents and students to practice better money management for life. Available online or in a binder format, the free classroom curriculum consists of a teacher's guide, student worksheets and quizzes. Teacher's Guide lessons cover topics
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 Practice "Maths" Perfect: Online Maths Quiz For Young Children / Students  PMP Online Tech
This is a simple but interactive maths quiz for young children or students aged 4 to 8 (requires a small membership fee). Based on the Singapore Mathematics methods.
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 Practising Timestables  Peter and Frank de Witte
Freely practice multiplication online, with problems posed in inverse proportion to how quickly you've answered them. Correct answers reward players with gold coins to spend in the learntimestables.com shop.
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 Praktick  Praktick Learning private Ltd.
Autoscoring practice problems aligned to the UK's Central Board of Secondary Education (CBSE) Standards, from prekindergarten to grade seven. Questions adjust dynamically based on performance, while a timer counts up response time; incorrect answers
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 Preparing for Assessment  Math Forum, Teacher2Teacher FAQ
Answers to a frequently asked question: How can I prepare my students for assessments?
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 Preparing Teachers of Mathematics: Asking the Right Questions  Lynn Arthur Steen; St. Olaf College
Lynn Steen writes that the problems of teacher preparation arise from multiple sources and require correspondingly different solutions. About mathematics teachers, prospective mathematics teachers, and curriculum issues.
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 Preservice Teachers' Conceptions of Mathematics and How to Teach It  Annie and John Selden; Mathematical Association of America
"The way teachers explain mathematics depends, to a large extent, on the conceptual grasp they acquire in their college classes. In addition, they often teach as they were taught, modeling themselves after their college mathematics teachers as much as
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 The Presidential Awards for Excellence in Mathematics and Science Teaching  National Science Foundation
The Presidential Award for Excellence in Mathematics and Science Teaching (PAEMST) is the nation's highest commendation for K12 math and science teachers. Read program information and facts, application packets, and press releases; look up awardees dating
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 President's Column (MAA)  Ken Ross
MAA President Ken Ross wrote this column for Focus on the need to connect K12 and collegelevel reforms.
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 The President's Educational Technology Initiative
This site promotes President Clinton's initiative, begun in 1996, to bring computers to every student in the United States. The site includes quotations and bibliography on the benefits of information technology, information on the administration's accomplishments
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 Primary Geometry (SMILE)  Barbara Pitra, Marconi Community Academy
A lesson designed to teach students to name, identify and categorize geometric shapes (triangle, square and rectangle) by the number and length of the
sides; identify triangles, squares and rectangles in their environment; through observation, comparison
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 PrimaryMath  David Dee
Paperless arithmetic learning for school and home. Create lessons composed of interactive problems in addition, subtraction, multiplication and division (including long division) with optional decimals and signed numbers.
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 Primary School Textbooks  Knowledge Books and Software
Offerings in math and other primary school subjects from this Australian publishing company.
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 Prime Curios!  G. L. Honaker, Jr., Chris K. Caldwell
A collection of curiosities, wonders and trivia related to prime numbers. Look up a number (up to 10^21+) and find what connections it has to the primes. The database has over 3400 curios corresponding to more than 1960 different numbers. The number of
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