 Peter J. Lu  Department of Physics, Harvard University
Lu's mathematical and historical research has revealed new insights in medieval Islamic quasicrystalline tilings and the earliest machines, such as the one he suggests precisely interconverted the linear and rotational motion responsible for the distinctive
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 peterlu.org  Peter Lu
Publications and research into medieval Islamic geometry (e.g., decagonal and quasicrystalline tilings in its architecture), softmatter and colloid physics, highperformance imaging, ancient Chinese technology (e.g., first use of diamond, early precision
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 Peterson's Education Center
A leading provider of information on U.S.accredited educational institutions in the U.S. and abroad. Topics include: Summer Programs for Kids and Teens; Public Schools K12; Private Day and Boarding Schools; VocationalTechnical Schools; Undergraduate
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 Peter Winton's Radical Home Page
Math topics include puzzles, a gallery of fractals, and Visual Basic programs to download (count the grains of rice on a chessboard, or graph different curves).
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 Petits Textes sur l'éducation  Laurent Lafforgue
Essais écrit par le laureat de la medaille Fields 2002, incluent "De l'école et de ce qui fonde la valeur de la culture et du savoir" et "De la culture générale des futurs instituteurs et professeurs" et "Les mathématiques
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 Página Web de Fibonacci, Humor, Matemáticas  José Mari López Goitia
Página personal, con secciones para humor y matemática, información sobre HTML, manual de C, buscadores de todo el mundo, y más.
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 PhD! ... plus epsilon  Adriana Salerno
Having earned her math doctorate in 2009, Salerno writes "about some of the challenges I've encountered while teaching, attempting to do research, and the lesser known aspect of 'service'" on institutional committees. In addition to blogging about "publish
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 The 'PhiNest'  Gary Meisner
This source for the golden section, golden mean, divine proportion, Fibonacci Series, and phi discusses phi "for neo'phi'tes"; credit cards; energy; geometry; history; life; the human hand; the human face; the human body; human beauty; development; the
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 Phi's Fascinating Figures  Ron Knott
More properties of the number Phi, its multiples and powers, continued fractions, formulae, and numerical relations between Phi and its powers.
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 Phi: That Golden Number  Mark Freitag, Univ. of Georgia
Phi can be found in many geometric shapes as an approximation of the Golden Ratio. A geometric figure commonly associated with Phi is the Golden Rectangle, which has sides A and B that are in proportion to the Golden Ratio. It has been said that the Golden
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 Photographic Polyhedron (Geometry and the Imagination)  Conway, Doyle, Gilman, Thurston; The Geometry Center
As you stand in one place and look around, up, and down, there is a sphere's worth of directions you can look. One way to record what you see would be to construct a big sphere, with the image painted on the inside surface. To see the world as viewed
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 Photos by Paul Halmos  Mathematical Association of America (MAA)
Snapshots taken by Paul R. Halmos of notable contemporaries, academics, and other intellectuals of the 20th century. Search or browse the tagged collection of pictures, each of which includes a brief note about the subjects photographed in Halmos' own
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 Phyllotaxis  Pau Atela, Chris Golé; Smith College
An interactive site for the mathematical study of plant pattern formation. Sections of the site include: Introduction to Phyllotaxis (classification, Fibonacci/golden angle, microscope, mathematical model, and lattices); history; glossary; references;
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 The Physics Classroom  Tom Henderson, hosted by StudyWorks! Online
A physics tutorial for high school students, including explanations, animations, quizzes, and practice problems.
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 Physics Forums
Discussions emphasize physics, but "PF" also includes an entire directory on mathematics: General Math; Calculus & Analysis; Differential Equations; Linear & Abstract Algebra; Topology & Geometry; Set Theory, Logic, Probability, and Statistics;
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 Physics (MathPages)  Kevin Brown
More than 60 "informal notes" by Kevin Brown on mathematical physics: Doppler for sound and light, optical rays in heterogeneous media, radial orbitgs in Schwarzschild geometry, the formation and growth of black holes, can Schrodinger's cat factor numbers?,
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 The Physics of Baseball  Alan Nathan
Read about the benefits (or not) of corked bats, the differences between aluminum and wood bats, the issues involved with characterizing the performance of bats from a physics point of view, and a description of the collision between a wooden bat and
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 Physics Simulation in Java  Erik Neumann
Physics simulations, including springs and masses (various configurations), pendulums (single, double, chaotic), and roller coasters. You can move objects or change parameters like gravity, friction, etc.
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 Physics ToolChest: Vector Algebra Tools  ToolChest Software, Inc.
Multimedia educational software in physics and mathematics. Advanced calculators and study aids for high school and college students.
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 Pi = 3.14159...  Math Forum, Ask Dr. Math FAQ
What is Pi? Who first used Pi? How do you find it? How many digits is it?
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 Pi Across America  University of Phoenix
Join the "Pi Pilot" for a "journey to one of humankind's most intriguing and celebrated numbers." Activities include "The Great Chain of Pi," "Taking Pi to Court," "Your Place in Pi," "Freehand Circle Drawing Competition," "Pi Party," and "Pi Bee." Scenario
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 Pi and Square Roots  Don Cohen (The Mathman)
Kohler (a 5thgrader) follows Archimedes. A graph and a program for iterating the square root of 10. Sample problems with some answers from Chapter 10 of Don Cohen's worksheet book.
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 Pi and the Fibonacci Numbers  Ron Knott
Contents: How Pi is calculated (Measuring the steepness of a hill; The tangent of an angle; The arctan function; Gregory's Formula for arctan(t); Radian measure; Gregory's series and pi; Using Gregory's Series to calculate pi; Machin's Formula; Another
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 Pi Approximation Day Greeting Cards  123Greetings
123Greetings  Send Free Electronic Greeting Cards to Friends and Families all over the World. There are no images available for Pi Approximation Day, but backgrounds and a variety of slogans are available, and you can write your own.
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 Pi: A Source Book  J. Borwein, SpringerVerlag
A complete history of pi, with resources for teachers for anything from special topic courses to individual talks and special student projects. The literature on pi included in this source book falls into three classes: a selection of the mathematical
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 Pick a Digit, Any Digit  Ivars Peterson (MathTrek)
One of the most amazing mathematical results of the last few years was the discovery of a surprisingly simple formula for computing digits of the number pi. Unlike previously known methods, this one allows you to calculate isolated digits  without computing
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 Pick a number from 1 to 10 ... for SCIENCE!  Alec Perkins
"When asked 'pick a number from 1 to 10,' people tend to pick certain numbers more than others, in particular 7 and 4 over the extremes...." Participate by choosing your own number; see bar graphs and line plots of data submitted thus far according to
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 Picking Winners  Ivars Peterson (MathTrek)
One of the attractive features of spectator sports is the uncertainty of the outcome. Even when one team is overwhelmingly favored to win, the underdog may still come through with a surprising victory. Nonetheless, the ability to pick winners can be of
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 Pick's Theorem  Cut the Knot!, Alexander Bogomolny
A description with proof of Pick's theorem, including links to further pages including exercises with an applet for the geoboard, Farey Series, and SternBrocot Tree. An interactive column for MAA Online that uses a Java applet to simulate a puzzle or
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 Pi Digit Pendants  Cliff Spielman
The first 3,456 digits of the decimal expansion of pi — microscopically printed on a silverplated, 15mm square. Fibonacci, prime number, and other variations available from Spielman's MicroPendants site. Jewelry available as a freestanding pendant,
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 The PiDye TShirt Shop  Josh Cummings
Purchase from a variety of pi and other math tshirts, mugs, clocks, etc., including the famous MathSpeak tshirt.
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 Pieces 'n Creases: A Fun Guide to Origami  Herring, Long, Haeggquist, Jeremy; ThinkQuest Junior
Contents include the history of origami; uses and benefits; terms, symbols, and tips; origami and peace; poems about origami; activities, and resources for folding paper. An awardwinning entry from Vidor Middle School.
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 Piecewise Functions  Math Forum, Ask Dr. Math Common Question
A selection of answers to questions about piecewise functions, such as how to graph them and how to determine the values of parameters that make a particular piecewise function continuous and differentiable.
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 Pi is Irrational  Malek
A mathematical argument for the irrationality of Pi, from Malek's Mathlinks (Mathematics on the Internet).
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 Pi  Jim Loy
An elementary introduction to pi.
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 PiNation.com  Hugh Bell
A site to "... just enjoy pi. Leave the math aside. Don't even think about the circumference of a circle." Create unique representations of the decimal expansion of pi with the PiArt Tool: choose the color for each digit, the number of decimal places,
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 Pinpointing Prey  Ivars Peterson (MathTrek)
The sand scorpion uses two types of sensors on the tips of its legs to detect mechanical vibrations transmitted over relatively short distances across the surface. One sensor, called the basitarsal slit sensillum, detects surface waves, or ripples. The
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 The Pi Page  Roy Williams
A mere 50000 Digits of the Famous Transcendental; A program to compute it; Some Arctangent Formulae for computing it; Some littleknown quaint numerical facts; and the most useless formula for computing pi. Also links to other pi pages.
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 The Pi Pages  Centre for Experimental and Constructive Mathematics (CECM)
"Pi is one of the few concepts in mathematics whose mention evokes a response of recognition and interest in those not concerned professionally with the subject. It has been a part of human culture and the educated imagination for more than twenty five
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 PiSearch
Search the first four billion binary digits of Pi for a string. Enter the string in hex (4 bit) or character (5 bit) format. Includes some statistics (probability of occurrence of characters, digits). Related links include articles and papers.
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 The PiSearch Page  Dave Andersen
Search the first 50 million digits of pi for any numeric string up to 120 digits. The page also documents a few observations about pi's numeric strings, including selflocating strings, palindromes, and monthday combinations.
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 The Pi Song  Hester Lewellen
Pi Song audio and sheet music. This musical scale is aligned to the digits of pi.
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 PI Team Chess Game
A multiple player chess game. PI Team Chess builds strong problem solving,
critical thinking, math and teamwork skills. Site includes chess lesson plans, scholastic research on chess, and problem solving activities.
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 Pitfalls of Data Analysis  Clay Helberg
Subtitled "... or How to Avoid Lies and Damned Lies," this paper discusses what people "often overlook in their data analysis, and ways people sometimes 'bend the rules' of statistics to support their viewpoint." Tips to ensure the clarity and accuracy
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 Pi Through the Ages  MacTutor Math History Archives
A history of pi: the Rhind papyrus (Egypt), Ptolemy, Tsu Ch'ung Chi, al'Khwarizmi, Al'Kashi, Viet, Romanus, Van Ceulen, Gregory, Shanks, Lambert, Euler, Buffon, and many more, with other Web sites and 30 references (books/articles).
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 The Pi Trivia Game  Eve A. Andersson
Test your knowledge of history, mathematics, and even a little physics. Here are 25 (given to you 5 at a time) pirelated questions, picked randomly from a pi question database. Also at http://cid.com/~eveander/trivia/.
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 The Pixel Calculator  METIP (Mathematics Experiences Through Image Processing) Project
The Pixel Calculator is intended primarily for use by students of ages 1217 in a variety of enrichment activities involving mathematics and digital image processing. It provides a good introduction for students to digital images by allowing students
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 PJ's Mathematical Gold Nuggets  Pam Strout; Bethel High School, Bethel, Connecticut
Links relating to K12 research topics in mathematics and mathematics teaching collected and usefully annotated by a mathematics teacher.
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 Place Value  Cut the Knot!, Alexander Bogomolny
Dictionary definitions of place value and what they lack; the emphasis on place value in the NCTM Standards; its importance in understanding our numeration system; how it arises from one of several possible representations of grouping in the counting
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 Planar Geometry (The Geometry Junkyard)  David Eppstein, Theory Group, ICS, UC Irvine
An extensive annotated list of links to material on planar geometry.
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