 Paul's Online Math Notes and Tutorials  Paul Dawkins, Lamar University
Online notes and tutorials on algebra, calculus, and differential equations. Also, PDFs, some reduced to fit onto one printed page, offering a review of algebra and trigonometry, a primer of complex numbers, listing common math errors, suggesting how
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 Paul's Page of Pi  Paul A. Gusmorino 3rd
Most of the content of this site is focused on methods of calculating pi: Archimedes' method; Wallis' formula; Gregory, Leibniz, and Machin; Newton's fluxions; and Paul's 8192 digits. Also Pi Poems, Music of Pi, and Pi Links.
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 Paul Trow's Math Page  Paul Trow
Trow's interactive web pages and perl software let you graph the LotkaVoltera equations and see interconnected predator and prey populations plotted over time; model the trajectory of a cannonball for different muzzle velocities and angles of elevation,
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 paulus gerdes's Storefront  Paulus Gerdes
Purchase print editions or download Gerdes' titles, some also available in Portuguese, Dutch, and French: Drawings from Angola: Living Mathematics, Enjoy Puzzling with biLLies, Puzzle Fun with BiLLies, The Bisos Game: Puzzles and Diversions, Introducing
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 PAX Puzzle  PAX Puzzle
Wooden puzzles, rope puzzles, puzzles boxes, and board games for sale. Recommendations and gift sets available.
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 Payoff Calculator  www.payoffcalculator.info
Financial calculators for finding out how long payments will take to pay off a loan, mortgage, or car loan. These payoff calculators also estimate how much you can save by adding extra contributions to your payments.
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 PBS TeacherLine  PBS
A professional development resource delivering courses online for PreK12 teachers. Find course dates, graduate credit opportunities, and other information. Download the course tour for a preview of the experience of taking a course. See also the Virtual
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 PBS Teachers: Math  PBS Teachers
The Public Broadcasting System's Math Service, combining computing and telecommunications technologies to offer interactive data services and interactive video and voice services for education based on the NCTM Standards. The site features: resources,
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 PC Calc
Calculator program for Windows 2000/XP. Offers calculations, graphing, matrices, steps in solving equations, and more. Features listed and a free 30day demo is available on the site.
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 PCMI@MathForum  Suzanne Alejandre, Jim King
An overview and, in some cases, details of the working groups, schedules, and projects from each summer session: Research Program, Graduate Summer School, Undergraduate Program, Mathematics Education Research Program, Undergraduate Faculty Program, High
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 PCS Edventures  PCS Edventures!.com, Inc.
Education company with a product line ranging from handson learning labs in technologyrich subjects like engineering, science, math, robotics, IT, and electronics to administrative tools designed to help schools manage the enormous amounts of data required
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 Pédagogie Mathématiques  Académie de Rennes
De nombreux documents pédagogiques (du collège au BTS), des jeux ainsi que d'excellents exemples d'utilisation des T.I.C.E. (technologies de l'information et de communication pour l'enseignement) des maths.
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 PDK Poster Project  Pamela Davis Kivelson
"Using Visual Means to Challenge Stereotypes." Posters for scientific literacy, humanizing the image of research science and scientists, and increasing the number of women and girls who choose to pursue and maintain careers in the physical sciences and
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 Peanut Software for Windows  Rick Parris
Abstracts and links for downloading free mathematics software: Wingeom (highprecision geometric constructions); Winplot (generalpurpose plotting utility); Winstats (scatter plots, curve fitting, histograms, statistical data, and standard theoretical
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 PearlQuiz  Web Pearls Inc.
A math quizauthoring system in three parts: an application platform that manages databases and computational engines; a server of HTML and JSP pages; and an author application for writing, editing, and publishing quizzes. Question types include true/false,
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 Pearson Learning  Dale Seymour Publications
A leading publisher of educational materials, emphasizing math, science, and the arts. The site contains: an online catalog; math curricula include: CMP (the Connected Mathematics Project) and Investigations (Investigations in Number, Data, and Space,
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 Pearson Math Stats  Pearson Learning
Pearson Learning brings you free activities for students to use with WolframAlpha. The questions teach input and command syntax or reinforce answer interpretation or the concepts of intermediate algebra.
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 Peaucellier's Linkage  Evelyn Sander, for Math 5337, The Geometry Center
Peaucellier's Linkage is a simple toy that could be constructed using straight rods attached together. The lab gives instructions for constructing and studying the linkage in Sketchpad. It then uses Sketchpad to explore the geometric properties of inversion,
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 Pedagogy Articles  Schiller
Translations of papers by G.W. Leibniz on the catenary (or funicular curve) and by Gauss on the Fundamental Theorem of Algebra.
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 Peek: Ndimensional polytope visualization by crosssection and projection  Gordon Kindlmann
A program to explore higher dimensional objects interactively through the use of crosssections and projections. The goal is for the user to gain some intuition about higherdimensional geometry. Projective views and 3dimensional crosssections of hypercubes.
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 Peeze  Patrick Snels
Tessellations and Escherlike perspectives, and tessellations of names, with Peeze, a tessellation program (Windows, PC) to download.
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 Peg Cagle's Math Education News & Views You Can Use  Peg Cagle
Blog by a secondary math teacher in the Los Angeles public schools where she "shares news, views, and whatever I choose, all with an eye to issues impacting K12 math education instruction, curricula, research and especially policy." Posts, which date
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 Pell's equation
 MacTutor Math History Archives
Linked essay on the indeterminate quadratic equation. With references and other related web sites.
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 Pennies in a Tray  Ivars Peterson (MathLand)
What's the largest number of pennies that you can pack inside a circular tray to form a carpet of nonoverlapping coins? What about inside a square or triangular tray? What if you could expand or contract the size of all your pennies to fit a required
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 Pennsylvania Education Network: Link To Learn  Pennsylvania Department Of Education
A threeyear (199699), $132 million initiative aimed at expanding the use of technology in the classroom, including links to related technology initiatives, agencies, and grant programs, as well as Internet resources for students and parents. Resources
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 Pennsylvannia Governor's School For The Sciences
A summer enrichment program for high school students, in session for five weeks, seven days per week. It is an intense program in which the students take lecture courses in biology, chemistry, physics, mathematics and computer science. It emphasizes handson
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 A Penny Surprise  Ivars Peterson (MathTrek)
Flipping a coin in the air, catching it, then determining whether it has come up heads or tails is to many people a prototypical random process. In some sense, however, coin tossing isn't really random at all. A mechanical gadget can flip a properly positioned
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 The Penrose Puzzle Room  World of Escher
Mathematically based Pentaplex Puzzles designed by Sir Roger Penrose, the wellknown English mathematician. The original 45 piece Gamebirds, 190 piece Perplexing Poultry  2 designs, 500 piece Jigsaw Puzzles  4 designs.
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 Pens and Crystals (Math Chat)  Frank Morgan, MAA Online
Answering the challenge: How should you fence in two adjacent rectangular pens of given areas A, B with the least amount of fencing (including the fencing separating them)? Ms. Mattuck's 8th graders at the Richmond School use the Geometer's Sketchpad
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 Pentagonal Geometry and the Golden Ratio (The Geometry Junkyard)  David Eppstein, Theory Group, ICS, UC Irvine
An extensive annotated list of links to material on geometric problems defined on regular pentagons, involving pentagonal angles, or based on the golden ratio (the ratio of diagonal to side length in a regular pentagon).
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 The Pentagon Universe (Penrose tiles and more)  Kadon Enterprises, Inc.
Manipulatives based on Penrose tiles, golden triangles and other tilings based on the golden ratio.
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 Pentangle  U.K.
To buy: wooden, mechanical, interlocking, mathematical and logical thinking puzzles; brainteasers, games, toys, gifts, threedimensional puzzles, promotional items, and collectors' puzzles,
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 Pentium Bug Revisited  Ivars Peterson (MathLand)
The incident that triggered a barrage of ridicule occurred in the fall of 1994, a few months after Intel had introduced its Pentium microprocessor. The furor started with an email message from Thomas R. Nicely, a mathematician at Lynchburg College in
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 Pentominoes  Robert Simms; Dept. of Mathematical Sciences, Clemson University
A Java applet spatial relations game. Try to place the pieces in the box with no overlapping. With detailed instructions, source code, development stages of the applet, and related links.
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 Pentomino  K.S.O. Glorieux Ronse, Belgium
An introduction to polyominoes, with a sitewide focus on pentominoes. The site features puzzles and contests, as well as galleries of pentomino constructions and problems, such as how to form letters of the alphabet and silhouettes of zoo animals. Available
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 Pentomino Relationships  Adrian Smith
The site describes how pentominoes (twelve pieces of wood, each a different shape and each made of five cubes) fit together into rectangles or cuboids, as well as the subsequent challenge of finding as many other solutions as possible from the one just
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 Percent  David Giordano
For Win95/98/ME/NT4/2000/XP, or for Pocket PC/Windows CE: calculate the percentage of any number out of any number. Free trial download; shareware program.
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 Perfect, Amicable and Sociable Numbers  David Moews
Definitions, descriptions, and discussions of perfect, amicable, and sociable numbers; aliquot sequences, related problems, and other definitions of divisibility, with a short bibliography.
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 A Perfect Collaboration  Ivars Peterson (MathLand)
Euclid and Euler seem an unlikely pairing. One was the most prominent mathematician of antiquity, best known for his treatise on geometry, the Elements. The other was the most prolific mathematician in history, the man whom his 18century contemporaries
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 Perfection  Greg Lobanov
This mobile game for iPhone and Android handheld devices presents convex and concave polygonal shapes for players to cut into the outlines indicated. Available directly from the iTunes app store and Google Play.
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 Perfect Numbers  MacTutor Math History Archives
Linked essay describing the work on perfect numbers from Pythagoras through Euclid, Nicomachus, the Arabs, Cataldi, Descartes, Mersenne, Fermat, Euler, Barlow, Catalan, Cole, and others; with other web sites and 20 references (books/articles).
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 Perfect Numbers  Math Forum, Ask Dr. Math FAQ
What is a perfect number? How many are there? How can you calculate a perfect number from a Mersenne prime?
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 Perimeter Efficiency  William Blackwell
Perimeter Efficiency, also known as Isoperimetric Inequalities, compares the actual perimeter of a shape with the circumference of the circle that would be required to enclose the same area. Since a circle will enclose any given area with the least amount
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 Perimeter Institute for Theoretical Physics
An independent, nonprofit, scientific research organization working to advance our understanding of physical laws and develop new ideas about the essence of space, time, matter, and information. Located in Waterloo, Ontario, Canada, Perimeter also provides
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 Periodic Points of Quadratic Polynomials  Cut the Knot!, Alexander Bogomolny
The main purpose of the Mandelbrot set is to index Julia sets corresponding to various values of the parameter c... iterations inside M evolve differently depending on the value of c. (You may explore some iterations via the applet supplied.) An interactive
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 Permadi.com  F. Permadi
Java and Flash applets: logic games, drawing and patternmaking programs, Conway's Life, and more arcadestyle offerings. Also includes tutorials in using Flash and a graphics gallery.
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 Permutations and Combinations  Math Forum, Ask Dr. Math FAQ
How to calculate all possible groupings of objects where order does  or doesn't  matter.
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 The perplexing mathematics of presidential elections  Keith Devlin (Devlin's Angle)
It's not the idea of one person one vote that's the problem, it's that math that is used to turn those votes into a final decision. Ideally, that math should reflect the wishes of the electorate. But does it? The answer usually comes as a surprise to
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 Perplexus  flooble
A large archive of mathematically inclined puzzles and problems displayed by category. Includes logic, number theory, geometry, probability and other problems. All are rated by difficulty and quality and discussed in depth by visitors. Most with solutions.
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 Personal Algebra Tutor (PAT)  CyberEd, Inc.
An algebra problem solving program for high school and college algebra. Students can enter a wide variety of algebra problems and PAT will solve them stepbystep, with detailed explanations. PAT solves, simplifies, graphs, etc. Solutions with sidebyside
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