 A Playground of Thoughts  Takasugi Shinji
Takasugi's "Number Systems of the World" lists dozens of languages; how to count from zero to one hundred in each; and the mathematical meaning of the expressions for each numeral. For example, the French say "93" with quatrevingttreize, which means
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 Playing with RuthAaron Pairs  Ivars Peterson (MathLand)
On April 8, 1974, Henry (Hank) Aaron hit his 715th major league home run, surpassing the previous mark of 714 career home runs long held by baseball great Babe Ruth. Understandably, the event received considerable coverage in newspapers and magazines
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 Playing Your Cards Right  Ivars Peterson; Science News Online
Researchers in Alberta are working to create a computer program that plays championship poker. The current version of the Alberta poker program, named Loki for the Norse god of mischief and chaos, already plays a strong game, but it isn't ready yet to
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 Play With Your Math  Kelly, JOEY; and Yu, Xi
Biweekly math problems that "require you to try, fail, and adjust many times before finding a solution." Each short, provocative question comes illustrated and ready to print out in large type on 33" × 40" dimensions: Space Race, Star Polygons,
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 Plexagon  Pleated Hexagon  Paul Bourke, Ron Evans
Plexagon is a new modular geometry based on the radial pleating of polygonal plates, and their joining or cobracing into 3D modules. This engineering approach can form a very practical basis for modular greenhouses (using recycled plastic sheeting) and
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 Plimpton 322: The Ancient Roots of Modern Mathematics  Laurence Kirby
A video documentary of our mathematical ideas from ancient cultures in the Middle East, Asia and Africa, and how they remain relevant in modern society and technology. The 33minute film includes footage of a 4,000yearold cuneiform tablet known as Plimpton
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 Plouffe's Inverter  Simon Plouffe
A database of more than 84,800,000 mathematical constants like Pi, Sqrt(2), Catalan and Euler's gamma. Enter a number, search or browse, and the programs will find what the number is made of. From the author of the Encyclopedia of Integer Sequences (with
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 Plumbing Statistics and Information  PlumbingSupply.com
Conversions, formulas, and tables about water weights, pressures, flows, volumes, horse power, pump efficiency, the weight of 100 yards of pipe filled with water, and flow rate to velocity comparisons. Also, a water flow rate guide and abbreviations.
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 Plusepsilon.de  Marc Palm
Questionandanswer German language platform for undergraduate and graduate math students. Browse or search questions by users, by tags of math topics, and other options. Not intended as a discussion platform, Plusεpsilon rewards participation
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 Plus Magazine  Department of Applied Mathematics and Theoretical Physics, University of Cambridge
Plus (formerly PASSMaths) is a triannual online magazine for older pupils and the general public. It publishes articles explaining the diverse applications of mathematics used in solving problems in physics, chemistry, biology, engineering, and economics.
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 PM Zone Science Search  Popular Mechanics
Enter words describing a concept or keywords you wish to find information about to conduct a keyword search of the science/technology magazine Popular Mechanics. For topics other than science, see the PM Search Page.
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 PNA: Revista de Investigación en Didáctica de la Matemática
PNA is a peerreview open access research journal published by the Spanish research group "Mathematics Education. Numerical Thinking" of the Andalusian Plan of Research. This journal includes papers in English and Spanish related to the teaching and learning
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 PNC Christmas Price Index  PNC Bank
PNC calculates the Christmas Price Index each year as a fun, lighthearted way to look at the increasing cost of goods and services in the song, "The Twelve Days of Christmas." Areas of their site include a video presentation, an interactive chart, and
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 Podcast Directory: Math  Podseek
Podcasts of various math instruction and tutorials. Log in to rate or review the links.
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 Poe, E.: Near a Raven  Mike Keith
An attempt at constrained writing  the art of constructing a work of prose or poetry that obeys some artificially imposed condition. "Near a Raven" encodes the first 740 decimals of pi.
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 Poe's Secret  Ivars Peterson (MathTrek)
Writer Edgar Allan Poe (18091849) is famous for his short stories of the mysterious and the macabre. His popular tale "The GoldBug," published in 1843, is often cited as one of the best works of fiction that turn upon a secret message. Poe had a longstanding
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 Poetry Patterns (TEAMS)  Jeannie Toshima; TEAMS Distance Learning, Los Angeles County Office of Education
Mathematical patterns in numbers and in poetry. This activity involves students in writing two forms of poetry  diamante and cinquain  that involve mathematical word patterns.
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 Poincaré Notes  Dave Wilson
"A massively disorganised collection of macros and figures for the Poincaré Disk model of hyperbolic geometry." A page describing some Cabri macros relating to hyperbolic Geometry in the Poincare disc model.
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 Poisson Pit: Poisson Probability Calculator  Chuck Anesi
Variously called the Poisson Distribution, Poisson Law of Large Numbers, or Poisson Distribution for Rare Events, the probability function for this discrete distribution of one parameter is given on this site. The Poisson distribution is usually employed
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 Poker Probabilities  Math Forum, Ask Dr. Math Common Question
A selection of answers to questions about poker probabilities, such as "In a standard deck of cards, how many different ways are there to get a straight, a flush, a straight flush, one pair, or two pairs?"
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 Polaroid Geometry Scavenger Hunt  Math Forum
This activity presented by Ruth Carver at the Math Forum's 1996 Summer Institute, "Constructing Mathematics on the Internet," displays pictures of items found on this a hunt for a list of geometric items (tessellations, symmetry, concentric circles, shapes,
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 Poliplus Software
Educational computer algebra, geometry, trigonometry, calculus software for Windows and Macintosh, and Java. Formulae 1 (F1) is a computer algebra system designed for the teaching and exploration of Mathematics. EqnViewer is a Java applet that allows
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 POLYA: Cooperative Solutions of Difficult Problems in Elementary Mathematics  Paul Yiu and Xiaodong Zhang, Moderators; Department of Mathematical Sciences, Florida Atlantic University
An archived discussion group for the cooperative solution of difficult problems in elementary mathematics through calculus, "preferably nontechnical in nature."
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 Poly and Poly Pro  Pedagoguery Software
Mac and Windows shareware programs for exploring and constructing paper models of polyhedra. With Poly, you can manipulate a polyhedral solid on the computer and print out a flattened version (a net) which can then be cut out, folded, and taped, to produce
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 Polyedergarten  U. Mikloweit
Photographs of paper models of uniform polyhedra, prisms and compounds. Versions of the site also exist in German and French.
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 Polygon Diagonals  Math Forum, Ask Dr. Math Common Question
A selection of answers to questions about polygon diagonals, such as "How many diagonals can be drawn for a polygon with n sides?"
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 PolygonFlux  John Miller
An iPad app for exploring the path taken by a point bouncing around inside a regular polygon of 3 to 14 sides. Set the initial angle and starting location, the number of bounces, and the number of sides for the polygon; collect an album of resulting "fluxagons"
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 Polygons: formality and intuition  Interactive Mathematics Miscellany and Puzzles, Alexander Bogomolny
A discussion of the definition of a polygon (is it desirable to allow overlapping vertices?), mathematical notation, an interactive exploration of Grünbaum's transformation and a generalization of Napoleon's Theorem, billiard tables, and the flexibility
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 Polygons Made To Order (SMILE)  Loretta Malone, Washington High School
A lesson designed to teach students to construct a regular polygon inscribed in a circle by using isosceles triangles with vertex angles at the center of the circle and legs as radii; determine the values of the angles; and discover that as the number
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 Polygons, Polyhedra, Polytopes  Russell Towle
Polytope is the general term of the sequence, point, segment, polygon,
polyhedron, ... . Towle offers several pages devoted to the theory of polytopes, from polygons to star polytopes in 4space, including Mathematica notebooks with constructions.
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 PolygonTrix  John Miller
A "polygon billiards" app for the iPad. Sink simple straightin shots, without any deflections; challenge yourself to bank the cue ball into the pocket after as many as ten caroms off the bumpers; or explore the developer's exercises. Switch amongst a
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 Polyhedra and Polytopes (The Geometry Junkyard)  David Eppstein, Theory Group, ICS, UC Irvine
An extensive annotated list of links to material on geometric properties of polygons, polyhedra, and higher dimensional polytopes (particularly convex polytopes).
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 Polyhedra Collection  V. Bulatov
Galleries of polyhedra shown using JPEG pictures and 3D objects in VRML2.0 format. Uniform polyhedra; Duals; Compounds; Johnson's solids; 59 stellations of icosahedron; 270 stellations of deformed dodecahedron; symmetric stellations of rhombic triacontahedron:
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 Polyhedra (Geometry and the Imagination)  Conway, Doyle, Gilman, Thurston; The Geometry Center
A polyhedron is the threedimensional version of a polygon, a threedimensional figure made by gluing polygons together. This handout discusses polyhedra, presents explorative activities, and supplies a "homework" assignment. Includes the first 20 Greek
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 Polyhedral Solids  Tom Gettys
The study of polyhedra is one of those special areas of Mathematics which allow the amateur and expert to work with an equal delight. The Platonic Solids; The Archimedean Solids; The KeplerPoinsot Polyhedra; Compound Solids; Stellated Polyhedra. See
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 Polyhedra  Peter Cromwell
Ancient manuscripts from Egypt and China relate ideas concerning the calculation of the volumes of polyhedra, while the Greek tradition of geometry gave us the construction of the regular polyhedra or Platonic solids. In modern times, polyhedra and their
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 Polyhedra plaited with paper strips  H. B. Meyer
A guide to generating certain polyhedra (Platonian, Archimedian and other solids) by plaiting paper strips (glueless method). In several cases pattern download of the paper strips is possible. In German and English.
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 Polyhedra  Rolf Asmund
A gallery of regular polyhedra, snub uniform polyhedra, deltahedra (polyhedra consisting only of equilateral triangles), and polychora; with animations, still graphics, and some taxonomic data (vertices, edges, faces, polygons, radii, and more). Mobius
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 Polyhedra Sketches  Bill Finzer, Key Curriculum Press
Sketches showing the platonic solids in true perspective. You have control over the placement of the picture plane, the station point, and the horizon. An animation button rotates the figure. Some of the sketches show in 3D if you have a pair of 3D glasses.
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 Polyhedra Study  Ha Le
An attempt to bring out the beauty of polyhedral study in particular and of mathematics in general via the use of the geom3d package in Maple and VRML (Virtual Reality Modelling Language). Categories: regular polyhedra; Archimedean solids; duality; facet;
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 Polyhedron: An application in solid geometry  Stelian Dumitrascu
Software based on "deductionfree geometry," which allows the user to perform various actions upon solids as if holding these solids in your hands. It simulates a number of tools, such as the ruler, protractor, setsquare, compass, bisector, saw, and eraser.
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 Polyhedrons: PolyMod Polyhedron Modeler  Daniel Grunberg
Free software for creating regular and irregular 3dimensional polyhedrons on the screen, view them from different angles, then print out their corresponding nets or templates to glue together to form the polyhedron.
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 Polyhedron Templates  Dan Grunberg
Design your own polyhedron paper models to print out, cut, fold, and assemble with glue. Build a net by choosing from among the five Platonic solids (tetrahedron, hexahedron, octahedron, dodecahedron, icosahedron), or use the advanced button to specify
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 Polymorf  Rick Engel
A math manipulative, construction set toy, model building kit, and 3D puzzle all in one, used for modeling polyhedra and the structure of molecules and crystals. Build lifelike geometric models of creatures, vehicles, and structures. For all ages.
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 Polynomials Calculator  Xavier R. Junqué
These online and downloadable calculators for basic math and polynomial operations handle matrices and output their inverses, determinants, eigenvalues, eigenvectors, cofactors, adjoints, transposes, Jacobians, and Jordan forms; calculate derivatives
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 Polynomials  Project MATHEMATICS!, California Institute of Technology
A videotapeandworkbook module that explores a basic topic in high school mathematics in ways that cannot be done at the chalkboard or in a textbook. Animations show how the Cartesian equation changes if the graph of a polynomial is translated or subjected
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 Polynomiography  Bahman Kalantari
Polynomiography is the "art and science of visualization in approximation of zeros of polynomials. This visualization is via fractal and nonfractal images created based on the mathematical convergence properties of iteration functions." The galleries
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 Polyominoes  Cynthia Lanius
What do dominoes and Tetris have in common? Both games use pieces that are formed of squares placed side by side. Dominoes use 2 squares; Tetris pieces (or tetrominoes) use 4 squares. Mathematician Solomon Golomb, in a 1953 talk at the Harvard Mathematics
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 Polyominoes  Kevin Gong
Information and Polyominoes software to download. A polyomino is a piece made up entirely of squares connected edgetoedge. For example, a domino is a polyomino with 2 squares. In this program, you can use pentominoes, tetrominoes, trominoes, hexominoes,
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 Polyominoes  Slavik Jablan
A plane topological disk (i.e. a plane region without "holes") consisting of n edgetoedge adjacent squares is called a polyomino. This site offers a shape description: in every border square cell of a polyomino we could introduce twosided mirrors perpendicular
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