 Prependix A: Math Notation On KCT
 Karl Hahn
Math notation over the Web: symbol conventions used by Karl Hahn for his Calculus Tutor Notes.
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 Preservice Teachers' Conceptions of Mathematics and How to Teach It  Annie and John Selden; Mathematical Association of America
"The way teachers explain mathematics depends, to a large extent, on the conceptual grasp they acquire in their college classes. In addition, they often teach as they were taught, modeling themselves after their college mathematics teachers as much as
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 The Presidential Awards for Excellence in Mathematics and Science Teaching  National Science Foundation
The Presidential Award for Excellence in Mathematics and Science Teaching (PAEMST) is the nation's highest commendation for K12 math and science teachers. Read program information and facts, application packets, and press releases; look up awardees dating
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 Presidential Election and the Length of the Shortest Piece (Math Chat)  Frank Morgan, MAA Online
Presidential election with 48% of the US popular vote does not come close to the extreme possibility, even with just two candidates, of winning with less than about 22% of the popular vote. See Math Chat of November 8, 1996. Answer to the Challenge: 1.
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 President's Column (MAA)  Ken Ross
MAA President Ken Ross wrote this column for Focus on the need to connect K12 and collegelevel reforms.
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 The President's Educational Technology Initiative
This site promotes President Clinton's initiative, begun in 1996, to bring computers to every student in the United States. The site includes quotations and bibliography on the benefits of information technology, information on the administration's accomplishments
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 Pretty Functions  Ivars Peterson (MathTrek)
About graphing calculators, and the software Graphing Calculator, a computer program for quickly visualizing two and threedimensional mathematical objects. Graphs illustrate plotting a given function, then seeing what happens when you
modify the function
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 Preuve Proof Prueba
A newsletter in French, Spanish, and English, the theme of which is teaching and learning mathematical proofs. Includes an extensive bibliography consisting of books, chapters in books, journal articles, and theses.
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 Primality Testing  Math Forum, Ask Dr. Math Common Question
A selection of answers to questions about primality testing, from "How does the Sieve of Eratosthenes work?" to "Is there an algorithm to determine whether a very large number is prime?"
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 Prime Curios!  G. L. Honaker, Jr., Chris K. Caldwell
A collection of curiosities, wonders and trivia related to prime numbers. Look up a number (up to 10^21+) and find what connections it has to the primes. The database has over 3400 curios corresponding to more than 1960 different numbers. The number of
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 Prime Factorization Machine  James Brennan
A page that runs a script that will return the prime factorization of a positive integer (limited to numbers less than 1,000,000). Even with this limit, numbers with very large prime factors may take a few minutes to factor if your computer has a slow
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 Prime Gaps  Ivars Peterson (MathLand)
A prime is a whole number (other than 1) that is evenly divisible only by itself and 1. That simple definition leads to following sequence of numbers: 2, 3, 5, 7, 11, 17, 19, 23, 29, 31, 37, 41, 43, 47, 53, 59, 61, 67, 71, 73, 79, 89, 97, 101, and so
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 primegen  D. J. Bernstein
Download primegen, a small, fast library to generate prime numbers in order. Using the Sieve of Atkin instead of the traditional Sieve of Eratosthenes, it generates the 50847534 primes up to 1000000000 in just 8 seconds on a Pentium II350; it prints
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 The Prime Glossary  Chris Caldwell; Dept. of Mathematics & Computer Science, Univ. of Tennessee at Martin
A guide to the terminology of prime numbers, and links to other pages with fuller definitions and information, written on two levels: for schoolteachers and students to define the basic words of elementary prime number theory and list the unusual or curious
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 Prime Hunter Game  Benny Lam, Gameducate.com
Hunt for prime numbers (or the largest prime factor in a composite number) from a board with a random layout of digits. Free download, or shareware version available. For Windows.
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 Prime Listening  Ivars Peterson (MathTrek)
Mathematician Chris K. Caldwell of the University of Tennessee in Martin has developed a scheme for listening to sequences of primes  to hear both simple patterns and perplexing irregularities found among those numbers. "Multimedia allows the use of
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 Prime Number Generator  Mark Chamness
This Java applet quickly generates a long list of prime numbers. When you pause or stop the list, you can scroll through the numbers.
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 Prime Number Listening Guide  Chris Caldwell; Dept. of Mathematics & Computer Science, Univ. of Tennessee at Martin
A guide to an online program that you can use to create your own "primal sounds" if you can play midi files. Caldwell introduces a few ways to hear the primes and use them to hear both the simple patterns (there are some) and the perplexing irregularities
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 Prime Number List  James Brennan
A page with a script that generates a list of prime numbers. Once started, it will run until you click 'Stop' or your computer runs out of memory. A second page writes the list to a new Web page suitable for printing.
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 The Prime Number Maze  William Paulsen; Arkansas State University, Jonesboro, AK
Navigate mazes of binary numbers determined by the distribution of the prime numbers. Try mazes at Beginner (binary notations and prime numbers), Intermediate (500 rooms), Advanced (5000 rooms), Super Advanced (6 times larger than the advanced), or Ultimate
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 Prime Numbers
Browse primes smaller than 10 billion, or see a list within a given range, or have such a list emailed to you.
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 Prime Numbers  Alex LópezOrtiz and the Sci.Math FAQ Team
Links to information on: Largest known Mersenne prime; Largest known prime; Largest known twin primes; Largest Fermat number with known factorization; Algorithms to factor integer numbers; Primality Testing; List of record numbers; What is the current
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 Prime Numbers and Factoring  Ray Ontko
A collection of links related to prime numbers and factoring of very large numbers, including FAQs from RSA Labs.
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 Prime Numbers and Factors  Machinery's Handbook 25
Tables give factoring information on numbers from 9600 to 21600. Reprinted from Machinery's Handbook, 25th Edition ("The Bible of the Mechanical Industries"). Prime numbers in the tables are indicated by the letter P. If a number is not prime, the table
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 Prime Numbers  MacTutor Math History Archives
Linked essay describing the work on primes from Pythagoras through Gauss, Legendre, Riemann, and Valee Poussin, with additional sections on still unsolved problems, the latest prime records, and other web sites, as well as 21 references (books/articles).
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 Prime Numbers  Math Forum, Ask Dr. Math FAQ
What is a prime number? What's the 'Sieve of Eratosthenes'? What is the largest known prime?
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 The Prime Pages  Chris Caldwell; Dept. of Mathematics & Computer Science, Univ. of Tennessee at Martin
An index of information on prime numbers. Definition; Articles and information on primes, including how to find and prove primality, and a wealth of historical information. Lists of primes and prime factorizations, including the first x primes and the
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 Prime Presentations  Karyn Hodgens
K12 workshops for professional development. An established educational consulting firm providing nationwide staff development training in the areas of math and science.
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 The Prime Puzzles & Problems Connection  Carlos B. Rivera
An anthology of the most interesting problems and puzzles explicitly related to prime numbers. Organized into: Records (to convert you into a "prime hunter"  you'll discover that all you need to top a record is a PC, a good code, and a certain amount
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 The Prime Puzzles & Problems Connection  Carlos Rivera
Problems and puzzles having to do with prime numbers. A new puzzle is posted each Saturday morning. Also links to related Web pages, and a short bibliography.
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 Primes and Composites (Math Chat)  Frank Morgan, MAA Online
Answering the challenge: Consider the sequence of integers 10n + 1: 11, 101, 1001, ... Are there infinitely many primes? Infinitely many composite numbers? Whenever n is odd, 10n + 1 is divisible by 11. Modulo 11, 10n + 1 = (1)n + 1 = 0 if n is odd,
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 A Prime Surprise  Ivars Peterson (MathTrek)
Many of the 100 or so people who had helped with the nineprime effort immediately signed up for the new quest and began checking numbers. To everyone's surprise, Manfred Toplic (the same!) set the new record, reporting on March 2 that he had found 10
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 Prime Talent  Ivars Peterson (MathTrek)
Whole numbers have all sorts of curious properties. Consider, for example, the integer 1998. It turns out that 1998 is equal to the sum of its digits plus the cubes of those digits (1 + 9 + 9 + 8 + 13 + 93 + 93 + 83). What's the largest number for which
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 Prime Theorem of the Century  Ivars Peterson (MathLand)
"Prime numbers have always fascinated mathematicians," Underwood Dudley of DePauw University in Indiana wrote in a 1978 textbook. "They appear among the integers seemingly at random, and yet not quite: There seems to be some order or pattern, just a little
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 Prime Time  Georgia Louviere
Student activities and teachers' pages designed to teach students to identify the first 25 prime numbers by using the "sieve" method first used by Eratosthenes, to explain why the number one is neither prime nor composite, and to demonstrate why the number
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 Prime Treasure Hunt  Ivars Peterson (MathTrek)
The headline shouted, "Hacker accused of using U.S. West computers on math problem." The Associated Press news report, dated Sept. 15 [1998], went on to describe how computer consultant Aaron Blosser of Lakewood, Colo., had enlisted 2,585 computers at
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 The Princeton Mathematics Community in the 1930s: An Oral History Project  Charles C. Gillispie, Albert W. Tucker, and William Aspray
Transcripts, with abstracts, of interviews with mathematics faculty and students at Princeton University during the 1930s, recounting that decade when Kurt Gödel studied spatially homogeneous cosmological models; Albert Einstein worked on a unified
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 Principia Hypertextica, A Mathematics Educator's View of Web Design: Links  William I. Johnston
Links to Web resources for information about and examples of typing math for the Internet. Typesetting, navigability, validity, accessibility, speed, other.
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 Principia Mathematica  A.D.Irvine; Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy
The philosophy encyclopedia's entry on Principia Mathematica, the landmark work on mathematical logic and the foundations of mathematics written by Alfred North Whitehead and Bertrand Russell. Next to Aristotle's Organon, it is the most influential book
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 Printable Math Worksheets  Homework for Kids
Practice worksheets, most with randomly generated problems, on the following topics: learning numbers, addition and subtraction, multiplication and division, fractions, decimals, time, measurements, perimeter, area and volume, integers, set theory, equations,
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 Printable Math Worksheets  TestDesigner.com
Free printable math worksheets, with answer keys, on number concepts, measurement, geometry, algebra, and statistics. Customize your own tests by selecting from the growing database of questions  or create your own.
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 Printables: Student Handouts  The Learning Network
PDF format printable handouts. Browse by grade or subject; check out the featured handouts; or search for a topic of your choice. Other resources also available through the Lesson Planning Center links on the site.
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 Print Free Graph Paper  Jeremy Hughes
PDFs of Cartesian, polar, isometric and logarithmic graph paper, optimized for printing. Available in Imperial units (inches) or metric units (centimeters), and in a choice of scales.
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 Prism Formulas (Ask Dr. Math FAQ)  Math Forum
Formulas for finding the surface area and volume of a prism.
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 The Prisoner Problem  Anne Arundel Community College
A classic logic problem about three prisoners, each of whom tries to determine what color his own hat is in order to be set free.
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 The Prisoners' Dilemma  Brefi Group
A game to teach winwin cooperation and negotiation to teams. Purchase readymade forms and instructions for teams to play this famous trust game, based on the "Prisoners' Dilemma" in which two criminals who are arrested after a crime are immediately
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 The Prisoners' Dilemma  F. Heylighen, Principia Cybernetica Web
Cooperation in game theory: the principle of suboptimization. A game that has been and continues to be studied by people in a variety of disciplines, ranging from biology through sociology and public policy. It is a "nonzerosum" game: the best strategy
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 Prisoners' Dilemma  Wayne Davis
An interactive game simulation inspired by Prisoners' Dilemma game theory as described in the book The Selfish Gene by Richard Dawkins. The payoff is a reduction in prison sentencing of very good, fairly good, fairly bad or very bad, which is translated
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 Prisoners of Time  U.S. Dept. of Education
Report of the National Education Commission on Time and Learning, April 1994, established as an independent advisory body to study the relation between time and learning in American schools. "The degree to which today's American school is controlled by
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 The Private Eye  Kerry Ruef
A handson, investigative teaching approach that attempts to stimulate the wonder of looking closely at the world, thinking by analogy, changing scale, and theorizing. It uses everyday objects, a jeweler's loupe, and a series of simple questions, which
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