 Project Euler  Colin Hughes
Browse hundreds of challenging problems that require mathematical insights as well as computer and programming skills to solve. Popular puzzles include "Add all the natural numbers below one thousand that are multiples of 3 or 5," "By considering the
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 project Eureka
project Eureka is a collaboratively edited site for problem solvers/creators—regardless of problem or field. Add problems with quantifiable results; or group problems in a test.
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 Projectile Dynamics in Sport  Colin White
Treatise of a range of sports equipment. Authored by a Principal Lecturer at the University of Portsmouth, Projectile Dynamics in Sport begins with a mathematical treatment of the general principles of flight, examining balls, discusses, javelins, shot
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 Project IMPULS  Tokyo Gakugei University
Project IMPULS (Project for International Mathteacher Professionalization Using Lesson Study) offers opportunities and ideas for mathematics teachers using lesson study. The library includes lesson study about positive and negative numbers; division;
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 Projective Conics (Gallery of Interactive Geometry)  Mathew Frank; The Geometry Center
This discussion of Pascal's theorem in terms of projective geometry includes an interactive application that lets you specify points on a conic and see how the theorem applies to them. Conics and Hexagons: Pascal's Theorem; Brianchon's Theorem; Some Stronger
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 Project Lead The Way
Project Lead The Way (PLTW) promotes preengineering courses for middle and high school students by partnering public schools, higher education institutions and the private sector. Goals of this national, notforprofit educational program include increasing
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 Project MATHEMATICS!  Apostol, Blinn, Corrigan, California Institute of Technology
Videotapeandworkbook modules that explore basic topics in high school mathematics in ways that cannot be done at the chalkboard or in a textbook. The
tapes use live action, music, special effects, and imaginative computer animation, and are distributed
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 Project Poison Applet  Computer Science Dept., Trinity College Dublin
A site created by firstyear computer science students as a Java programming project. Each of 12 topics (Algebra; Geometry; Trigonometry; Calculus; Matrices; Sequences & Series; Complex Numbers; Vectors; Probability; Groups; Further Calculus; Further
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 Project Search: Math  Buck Institute for Education
Dozens of studies and summaries of research on project based learning (PBL) in math. The Buck Institute for Education (BIE) is creates and disseminates products, practices and knowledge for effective PBL.
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 Projects for ProjectBased Learning (PBL)  WestEd Regional Technology Education Consortium (RTEC)
Designed to provide webbased support for teachers, parents, and children who are interested in projectbased learning (PBL), design, and invention. Exemplary Projects has lesson plans, ideas, information, and links to PBL resources, and can be used by
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 The Projects of R. W. Gray  Robert W. Gray
Geometric coffee tables, an introduction to polyhedra and the jitterbug (a dynamic polyhedron) that draws on the golden ratio, a collection of notes with respect to R. Buckminster Fuller's work, photos of a dome frame Gray built with students at Oswego
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 Project VISIT
An online professional development collaboratory for high school teachers of science, technology, and social science, supported by the National Science Foundation. VISIT seeks teacher leaders to participate in leading this program during February  May,
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 Project Welcome (Web Educator's Library Collection of Mathematical Explorations)  MAA (Mathematical Association of America)
Interactive mathematical programs in a newly developed, Javabased interface.
Download online or offline versions of the player. Twenty lessons, with summaries, include "Best Linear Fit," "Limits of Functions," "Piecewise Functions," "Nonlinear Equations,"
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 Projet Folium
Folium est un ensemble organisé d'articles sur les mathématiques, du cours aux biographies de mathématiciens célèbres, en passant par les exos les plus classiques et les théorèmes les plus puissants. Articles
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 ProMath Archive  Dept. of Mathematics, University of Kentucky
A 199596 competition offering Lexington area high school students an opportunity to work on interesting, challenging mathematical problems and to develop their problem solving skills and taste for individual work in Mathematics. The program had two complementary
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 PROMYS: The Program in Mathematics for Young Scientists  Boston University Department of Mathematics and Statistics
PROMYS encourages ambitious high school students to explore the creative world of mathematics. Each summer, approximately 60 high school students from around the country gather on the campus of Boston University for six weeks of rigorous mathematical
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 Prongo.com
Free online games, such as Batter's Up Baseball and Lemonade Larry, for practicing arithmetic, investing in the stock market with real time stock prices, using logic to guess a number and decipher secret codes, and more. Themes of other games include
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 Pronunciation Guide to Mathematicians  Gary S. Stoudt, Mathematics Dept., Indiana Univ. of Pennsylvania
Pronunciations of the names of mathematicians frequently encountered by undergraduate students, with links to information about them in the MacTutor History of Mathematics archives. Note on Pronunciation: Not all of the phonetic pronunciation symbols
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 Proof, Mathematical (Encarta Encyclopedia 2000)  Microsoft Encarta Online
An argument that is used to show the truth of a mathematical assertion. In modern mathematics, a proof begins with one or more statements called premises and demonstrates, using the rules of logic, that if the premises are true then a particular conclusion
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 A Proof of Pythagoras' Theorem  Michal Wojcik
A geometric proof of Pythagoras' Theorem written in HTML with one graphical image.
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 A Proof of the Pythagorean Theorem by Liu Hui (third century A.D.)  Donald B. Wagner
Web version of an article which appeared in Historia mathematica, 1985, 12, pp. 713. Includes Chinese characters, which were not in the published version. Some statements here are no longer up to date, but the article has not been significantly modified.
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 A Proof of the Pythagorean Theorem  Isaac Reed
One of the most famous theorems in mathematics, the Pythagorean theorem has many proofs. Presented here is one that relies on Euclidean algebraic geometry and is thus beautifully simple.
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 Proof of the Pythagorean Theorem (Math Exploration Quilt)  Rik Littlefield; Hanford School
Proof by the scaling law.
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 Proof of the Pythagorean Theorem  Rik Blok
Pythagorean theorem: in a right triangle the square of the hypotenuse is equal to the sum of the squares of the sides containing the right angle. Two proofs: one by a construction, and one by the method of similar triangles.
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 Proofs in Mathematics  Interactive Mathematics Miscellany and Puzzles, Alexander Bogomolny
A discussion of the value of proofs in the classroom, followed by a collection of proofs classified as either simple or charming. Simple proofs: Number of vowels in a Lewis Carroll game; Pigeonhole Principle; Number of X's and O's; Coloring points in
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 Proofs  James Garner
An essay on different approaches using mathematical proofs: inductive reasoning, reasoning by analogy, deductive reasoning, direct method, contrapositive approach, etc.
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 Proofs Wiki  Brunner Nathan
A communitybased collection of definitions, proofs, and theorems. The Proofs Wiki composition interface supports LaTeX and tooltips.
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 Proofs Without Words  Cut the Knot!, Alexander Bogomolny
Martin Gardner wrote, "There is no more effective aid in understanding certain algebraic identities than a good diagram. One should, of course, know how to manipulate algebraic symbols to obtain proofs, but in many cases a dull proof can be supplemented
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 A Proof that e is Irrational  Isaac Reed
A proof by contradiction that relies on the expression of e as a power series.
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 A Proof That e is Transcendental  Travis Kidd
A proof by contradiction, adapted from Klein, Famous Problems (New York: Chelsea Publishing Company, 1962).
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 Proof: The Sum of Prime Twins is Divisible by 12  Mathematics Dept., College of Marin
Prime twins are prime numbers that are two numbers apart. For example 41 and 43 are prime twins. Can you PROVE that the sum of prime twins is divisible by 12?
(This proof doesn't work for the prime twins 3 and 5.)
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 ProofWiki  Matt Westwood
ProofWiki is an online compendium of mathematical proofs. Those interested in adding to the work are urged to create an account and contribute.
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 Properties Glossary  Math Forum, Ask Dr. Math FAQ
What is an operation? What is an identity? What are the associative, commutative, and distributive properties? What is the property of closure? What is the inverse of something?
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 Properties of Dice  Klaus Mogensen
An essay on Proper Dice (illustrated) and Dice Roll Probabilities.
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 Properties of Numbers (SMILE)  Leon Steinfelds, King High School
A lesson that contrasts the "mean" behavior of 0, 1, 2, and regular numbers, likening numbers to students. From the "Miscellaneous" section of a collection of almost 200 single concept lessons by the Science and Mathematics Initiative for Learning Enhancement.
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 Properties Of Quadrilaterals (SMILE)  Margaret A. Olson, Morgan Park High School
A lesson designed to teach the names, definitions, and properties of quadrilaterals, and how to apply the correct property to each different quadrilateral. From the Geometry and Measurement section of a collection of almost 200 single concept lessons
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 Prophet of Chaos  Ivars Peterson (MathTrek)
"'...it may happen that small differences in the initial conditions produce very great ones in the final phenomena. A small error in the former will produce an enormous error in the latter. Prediction becomes impossible, and we have the fortuitous phenomenon.'
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 ProRadian  Jennifer Silverman
Protractors for learning about radians "in the same way you learned about degrees — by measuring." ProRadian learning sets contain two protractors, one scaled in 0.1 radians and one scaled in π/24 radians. Silverman, who now writes math curriculum
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 The Pros and Cons of Technology in the Classroom  Roy Pea, Larry Cuban, Bay Area School Reform Collaborative, TAPPED IN
Nationally recognized experts on the subject, Dr. Roy Pea and Dr. Larry Cuban offer their insights in this transcript of speeches each gave to a gathering of organizations that fund school reform projects. A transcript of questions and answers from the
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 Proudnerd.com  Heather Sable
"For the selfassured nerd": humorous tshirts, long sleeve tshirts, women's tshirts, sweatshirts, hooded sweatshirts, boxer shorts, hats and caps, bags and backpacks, mugs and cups, mousepads, apparel for kids, babies, and toddlers, and more. Solve
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 Prove it! Math Academy  Monks Math Ltd.
A residential summer math camp at Colorado State University for talented students 1418 years old. The twoweek course of Prove it! emphasizes mathematical rigor and proofwriting skills in a problemsolving context. Admissions begin with a test of word
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 ProveIt! TwoColumn Proofs Practice Tool  Michael Ferraro
Michael Ferraro of Balboa High School in San Francisco, CA, created this tool for students to practice their twocolumn proof skills. Choose a topic to begin, and choose statements and reasons from the list given. As you go, there are options to remove
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 Providing HandsOn, MindsOn, and Authentic Learning Experiences in Mathematics (NCREL)  Cathy Cook; Pathways to School Improvement
A linked essay giving overview, background, and issues around constructivist theory and its implementation. "When educators begin to see learning as knowledge construction, they change their thinking about curriculum, instruction, and assessment, developing
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 PseudoNumerals  phonetic symbols for numbers  Allan Krill
A method for remembering IDnumbers, etc., as words. The techniques used here have been used for 200 years, but now are formally defined as numerals. Presented in August at Mathfest 2002.
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 Psychosemiotic Theory and Educational Practice  Alice Leonard
Walkerdine and Corran's (1979) paper showed how psychosemiology may account for developmental data as a potentially fruitful alternative to the better known stage theories, like that of Piaget. They argued that learning mathematics is an ideal activity
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 P.T. Chang
Articles by this math professor from the University of Alaska Anchorage's MatSu College include "The Ostentatious World of Algebra," "InService Training for the Math Teacher of the 21st Century," and "Retesting in a College Remedial Mathematics Course."
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 PTC: Product Lifecycle Management Software  Parametric Technology Corporation
PTC acquired MathSoft, developer of Mathcad and other software for math, science and engineering for business, research, academic and government markets. They also market Pro/ENGINEER, Windchill, Arbortext, ProductView, CoCreate, and InSight.
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 Ptolemy's Ptools  ThinkQuest 1998
Easytounderstand math projects for students to do by themselves or with adult direction. Triangle investigations of the perspectives of the 3D video games Star Fleet Academy, Quake II, and Sub Culture Submarine Adventure. "Quadrant projects" involve
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 P Torres blogger  Paula Torres
Blog by an AP Calculus teacher at a public high school in Rancho Cucamonga (CA). Posts, which date back to February, 2014, have included "Beginning to flip," "The wonder of Desmos," "Calculus around the room and 'the Statistics talk,'" "They won't fall
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 Publications and Research Tools (AMS)  American Mathematical Society
The AMS research and publishing services include MathSciNet and the AMS Electronic Journals. Research tools for mathematicians include Mathematical Reviews Author Lookup, Institution Codes and Addresses, Serials Abbreviations; the AMS Preprint Server,
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